However, this is a feature that is only easily apparent after examining a large number of these type bottles and should simply be used as one of several physical features to consider when estimating the manufacturing date of this type. Generally speaking, the dating of these type bottles based on manufacturing related diagnostic features follows quite well the guidelines presented throughout this website and summarized on the page; see that page for more information. Ribbed styles This moderately variable category of sauce bottles is unified by the fact that the bottles have some type of molded decorative body features dominated by variously detailed and oriented ridges or ribbing.
These bottles primarily contained various types of pepper sauce aka peppersauce - one word though some were used for foods like ketchup, vinegar and likely other semi-liquid food products Switzer ; Zumwalt All do share a general similarity of overall conformation of being a 'sauce-like' tall and narrow, usually a capacity of 12 oz.
Or less, and typically but not always have a relatively narrow bore and double ring finish. One should be aware that there is a lot form and decorative variety within this category not specifically covered by the pictured bottles, though those discussed in the following are commonly encountered designs Zumwalt It should also be noted that ketchup bottles often have vertical body ribbing and grade into this category somewhat, though ketchup bottles tend to have a different overall conformation and usually a different type finish, i.
Ketchup bottles are covered in the next section. Vertically ribbed: Tall, relatively narrow sauce bottles with varying types of vertical ribs, ridging or fluting were a very common conformation from as early as the late s or early s well into the early 20th century Switzer ; Zumwalt Mouth-blown vertically ribbed sauce bottles were typically made of aqua glass, though colorless or light amethyst manganese dioxide decolorized glass examples are fairly common and deeper greens and blues occasionally seen. Machine-made vertically ribbed sauce bottles - though not specifically discussed here - exist and lean strongly towards being dominated by colorless glass like the majority of 20th century, machine-made food bottles and jars Zumwalt The common, vertically ribbed sauce bottle pictured above is of late 19th century origin and is hexagonal in cross-section.
Nothing is really known about this company except that it was located at Washington St. In New York City Zumwalt However, this vertically ribbed style and similar variations were certainly used by many different sauce producing companies and made by many different glass companies during the era from the s to s. This particular example has a tooled double ring finish and was blown in a post-bottom mold though has no obvious air venting marks indicating a likely manufacturing date range.
Click on the following links for more images of this bottle:;;. Photo courtesy of David Whitten. The pictured example also has three horizontal rings on the neck which was a common stylistic feature for this class of vertically ribbed sauce bottles. This example has an applied double ring finish, lacks evidence of mold air venting, and is not pontil scarred on the base which is embossed with S.
Photo courtesy of Glass Works Auctions. Ebenezer Miller and Stephen Provost joined with Miller by and operated under their three names until the mids Zumwalt This particular bottle has a crudely applied one-part extract type finish more or less , blowpipe pontil scarred base, and was hinge mold blown with certainly no evidence of mold air venting the author has never observed a pontil scarred, mold air vented bottle. These attributes are consistent with a manufacture during the s or early s. One of these bottles with an original label noted that it contained 'tomato catsup' and similar bottles from this company have been recorded in cobalt blue and deep green, though the vast majority are aqua Zumwalt ; empirical observations.
Pickle bottles from this company were also excavated from both the steamships Arabia and Bertrand which sank in the Missouri River in and , respectively Switzer ; Hawley This gives some indication of how commonly used these bottles were during the midth century. Although the style was most popular during the era noted s to s they were made by at least one glassmaker in the early s as they are listed in the Robert J.
Alther glassware catalog as a 'fluted pepper sauce' Alther ; empirical observations. Click to view the page from the catalog that shows their version of the bottle which appear identical to the examples pictured above, including the vertically fluted body ribs and three tightly grouped horizontal rings on the neck Alther Although the author has not personally seen an example with diagnostic features indicating an early 20th century production, it is possible that the vertically ribbed pepper sauce in the 'other images' grouping below may be from as late as the very early s.
This photo and a description of the bottle was provided by a user of this site in early Horizontally ribbed: Distinct horizontal ribbing was also a very common conformation for a wide variety of sauce bottles from at least as early as the s until well into the 20th century. Many types of sauce bottles fit into this category with only a few covered here; users should be aware that this category has a wide range of types and variations. The binding feature here is that these bottles have distinct horizontal body ribbing, usually held no more than 12 to 16 oz. The so-called 'beehive' sauce bottles pictured to the left and right were used by the E.
New York and are embossed on the base as such. Photo to the right courtesy of Glass Works Auctions. Click to see an image of the base. The pictured bottles range from 7' to 7. These are not narrow bodied like the other sauces pictured here though there are other obvious similarities. As emphasized throughout this website, this is yet another example of the fact that in all things connected with bottle identification, there are virtually always exceptions. A few other companies utilized bottles of this style from at least the s to well into the s and possibly later, although the vast majority of the beehive sauce bottles encountered are from Durkee Zumwalt ; empirical observations.
The horizontally ribbed sauce pictured to the left is an early machine-made item that also had virtually identical mouth-blown counterparts. These were called 'ring pepper sauce' or 'oval ring pepper sauce' bottles by the likely dozens of different early 20th century glass makers that produced the style.
This oval in cross-section style was popular from the late s through at least the late s and early s Illinois Glass , , , ; Cumberland Glass ; Fairmount Glass ca. Click on the following links to view more images of this bottle: vaguely showing the maker's mark for the Illinois Glass Co. Very similar looking ringed peppersauce bottles were also made during the same era s through s that were round 'round ring pepper sauce' and square 'square ring pepper sauce' in cross-section instead of oval Illinois Glass ; Cumberland Glass ; Obear-Nester Glass Spiral: This style falls halfway between the two styles noted above in that the ribs spiral down or up depending on perspective the bottle with the overall 'look' visually more similar to the horizontally ribbed styles than the vertically ribbed.
This style is typified by the three differently colored sauce bottles pictured to the right. The pictured bottles to the right 7. FOR on the base. These bottles have tooled double ring finishes with the upper portion distinctly larger than the lower portion and were blown in a cup-base mold which likely had air venting although evidence of air venting is lost in the heavily decorated body styling - all attributes indicating manufacture between the s and early s.
These bottles were neck labeled since labels could not adhere well to the lumpy body; click to see an image of part of the neck label noting the company name. Other images of ribbed style sauce bottles are available by clicking on the following links. This is a variation of the oval in cross-section , horizontally ringed peppersauce style that was very popular from the early s to s, though this example only has two rings at the shoulder and two above the heel.
It has a tooled double ring finish, was blown in a cup-bottom mold, and has multiple mold air venting marks including on the base which is a strong sign of production after into at least the early s. It was made of colorless glass which has a slight amethyst tint indicating de-colorization with manganese dioxide which was most commonly used between the s and late s Giarde Click on the following links to view more images of this bottle:; showing the upper body rings and the location where the side mold seam disappears.
The bottle body and shoulder is vertically ribbed with a horizontal ring on the lower neck, has a blowpipe pontil scar on the base, crudely applied two-part mineral type finish, and was blown in a post-bottom mold which almost certainly was not air vented given the likely date of manufacture of the s or early s. This item could simply be an example of bottle re-use, having started its life as a sauce bottle, or it could have been purchased new to contain medicine - there is no way to know for sure. Click on the following links for more images of this bottle: showing the blowpipe style pontil scar;; showing the medicinal claims.
It is likely, however, that the vast majority of these type bottles were indeed used for sauces. Diagnostic manufacturing related features on this bottle which point towards a later manufacture to the early s for this style is the colorless glass, cup-bottom mold production, 7 air venting marks scattered around shoulder at the top of most of the ribs click to see one of the vent marks pointed out , and the tooled finish.
The oil finish on this bottle, instead of the usual double ring, indicates it may have been used for catsup instead of pepper sauce, though without any identifying embossing or the original label - of which this bottle has neither - it is impossible to tell for sure. Click to see such which shows the M or W marking which may or may not be a makers marking; probably the latter.
Photos courtesy of Janis Scalone. The latter is usually not possible unless the example has the original labels or is embossed, a rare occurrence. Generally speaking, ketchup bottles are relatively tall and narrow a typical height of at least 3 times the body or base diameter and have a moderately narrow mouth or bore for the size of the bottle. The most common styles like most of the examples pictured here also have a long gradually tapering shoulder to neck portion that is distinctly taller than the body section below it.
Earlier examples ca. Flat panels on the body are very typical of bottles from about to at least the midth century and even today on glass ketchup bottles still being used; most ketchup now comes in plastic. Ketchup bottles were a standard offering from most bottle producing glass companies as evidenced by most late 19th to midth century bottle makers catalogs. The illustration to the right is from the Obear-Nester Glass Co.
Louis, MO. Click to view a description of this type closure and finish on the Bottle Closures page. The mouth-blown ketchup bottle pictured to the above left is a very typical general shape for packaging this product during the late 19th through much of the 20th century; it is not that much different than the shape used today for glass bottled ketchup somewhat of a rarity in the U. Since most is now packaged in plastic bottles.
See the labeled olive oil bottle later on this page. The pictured bottle dates from the to era based on the external screw thread finish called a 'screw top tool finish' by glassmakers , multiple mold air venting marks on the shoulder and possibly in the embossing pattern, a faint amethyst tint to the glass, and cup-bottom mold production - all of which point towards the first two decades of the 20th century Fairmount Glass Works Click on the following links to view more images of this bottle: showing the ribbing;; showing faintly the embossing; showing the 'improved tooled finish' with the mold seam ending point indicated.
The likely ketchup bottle pictured to the left is representative of the fancier earlier sauce bottle styles and an example that most likely dates from about This style could well have held other types of sauce i. Click on the following links to view more images of this sauce bottle:;. A very similar 'decanter catsup' was offered by Robert J. Alther San Francisco, CA. In general, like with some other bottles styles e. These bottles look to be the precursor style to the early 20th century examples discussed here.
The point here is that there was a lot of variety in shapes used for ketchup, particularly during the period from the s to the s. By the latter time styles began to become a bit more uniform though there was still some variety; see pages of the Illinois Glass Company catalog found on this website at this link:.
The base is embossed with H. Click the to see the base of this bottle showing the embossing and makers mark. Refers to for this bottle style; the is Heinz's assigned number for the style. The company assigned an internal number to all their scores of patented bottle styles beginning about Zumwalt This particular bottle was found with a crown cap on it note rust staining as the bead on the rim of this 'combination' finish is exactly the right size for a typical sized crown cap. It is not thought original but related to a re-use of the bottle as it had several holes punched in it and was likely re-used as a salt shaker or sprinkle bottle.
This general style of 8-sided catsup bottle was called the 'octagon catsup' or 'paneled catsup' by bottle makers Illinois Glass Co.
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Code list courtesy of the H. Other images of ketchup bottles are available by clicking on the following links. Wheeling, WV. Lief noted that the Goldy closure was most popular on catsup bottles and, though invented in , appeared to have the most popular during the to era, though similar versions are still in some use today Lief ; empirical observations.
This style with the many body panels was called the 'fluted catsup' by some glassmakers as shown in the illustration earlier in this section Obear-Nester Glass Co. Even though an unusual conformation it still has an overall shape that 'fits' the sauce bottle category, i. Of course bottles within the other types also fit this general description, though if one had an unembossed bottle that was otherwise identical in form to the Plummer's, a reasonable conclusion would be that it was likely used as a sauce bottle. Click on the following links for more images:;;.
This example is mouth-blown similar ones were made by machine also , almost certainly has air venting, blown in a cup-bottom mold, and has an improved tooled external threaded finish. Click on the following links to view more images of this bottle: showing the initials B. Curtice Brothers was a large ketchup and preserves producing firm that began just after the Civil War and continued until at least the late s.
They used the pictured style of bottle from at least the early s into the early to mids Rinker ; Zumwalt Bottles during the pre era are, of course, all mouth-blown with double ring or various one-part finishes ubiquitous. During the first half of the s most ketchup bottles are mouth-blown; by the last half of the s they are largely machine-made, though mouth-blown examples occurred to a small degree into the early to mid s.
Most have sided bodies like the Heinz patented bottle discussed above. Click to see an example. Mustard was most commonly packaged in stylized 'barrel' shaped bottles from the midth century until well into the 20th. Mustard was also thought to be a cure for ailments ranging from congestion to hysteria, snakebite to bubonic plague Gerth Although bottled in a variety of wide mouth, typically squatty bottles, mustard was commonly bottled in barrel shapes for much of the time period covered by this website. Barrel mustard bottles - based on glassmaker catalogs and the authors empirical observations - are dominated by those with 3 molded rings aka staves, bands above and below the central label area, like the examples pictured here.
Other conformations ranging from 2 to at least 6 rings have also been noted as well as some with vertical staves. Most examples have rings that are separated by a distinct space, like the example above left. Mustard was also packaged in other shapes of ceramic and glass bottles examples discussed below though the barrel shape is the most closely associated with the product Switzer ; Zumwalt See pages of the which offered the standard barrel as well as about a dozen other shapes, including one that was beer mug shaped!
The image to the right above is from the Illinois Glass Company catalog page and shows their barrel mustard offering left barrel bottle available in 6 sizes and what is likely the second most common general shape of that era for containing mustard - the 'pot mustard' right bottle. Barrel mustards are typified by the fairly uniform shapes shown here. Glass makers catalogs, including the Illinois Glass Company, referred to these bottles as 'barrel mustards' and offered them sizes ranging from 3 oz. To a quart though the most commonly encountered size seems to be around ounces Illinois Glass Co.
By , the barrel mustards were being offered with screw thread finishes for the 'American Metal Cap' by the Illinois Glass Company and cork finish examples were apparently no longer available Illinois Glass Co. This appears to be so because the surface area against the cork increases allowing more opportunity for the cork to not fit well Lief Interestingly enough, the Illinois Glass Company catalog noted that their barrel mustard style could '.
The barrel mustard pictured above is an 8 oz. Size measured to the top ring and the general type most commonly encountered. It has a tooled one-part finish more or less a 'wide patent' or 'bead' type , made from colorless glass with a slight amethyst tint, blown in a cup-bottom mold although with no obvious evidence of mold air venting making the likely production date between and Click on the following links to view more images of this typical size and design bottle:; with some of the tooling striations in evidence and the ending point of the side mold seam where it was 'wiped out' fairly obvious.
This mold seam ending point marks the furthest point on the 'neck' that the outside pads of the could reach. Zumwalt These bottles were usually made of colorless or aqua glass; very rarely in other colors. Click on to view an image of the base of this bottle which exhibits a faint blowpipe type pontil scar pointed out in image though the scar has a diffuseness to it that is reminiscent of a sand pontil.
The bottle body has no evidence of air venting and was blown in a post-bottom mold although the side mold seam just barely curls around the heel to join with an apparent post-bottom mold seam. Click to see such. Very similar shaped mustard bottles of French origin with pontil scars were found on the Steamship Bertrand which sank in the Missouri River in April These mustard bottles were among the very few bottle types salvaged from that ship that exhibited pontil scars when this author viewed the collection in Iowa recently empirical observations The Bertrand mustards were a bit unusual in that they had 4 closely stacked rings instead of three spaced ones, though the rings were in the usual positions above and below the open label area Switzer It also has a very crudely or burst-off finish with just a bit of grinding done to the finish rim to keep from being dangerously sharp.
Western Spice Mills was a St. Firm which, being at the gateway to the rapidly opening West, did a lot of business on the upper Missouri River as well as downstream along the Mississippi River. Gothic style pepper sauce bottles with this company name embossed were found on the Steamship Bertrand and on the Steamboat Arabia which sank in the Missouri River in Although early information on the company is sparse it obviously dated as far back as and is known to have continued in business until at least Switzer ; Zumwalt ; Hawley The aqua barrel bottle to the right is approximately 4' tall, has a rolled outward finish It could be of either American or European origin and likely dates from the to era.
Aqua was certainly the second most common color for this style, though still lags behind colorless glass which was for some reason the standard 'color' of choice for mustard bottling. This was true even prior to the s when colorless bottles were relatively uncommon as they were more expensive to produce than aqua glass empirical observations. Other images of barrel and non-barrel mustard bottles are available by clicking on the following links.
The bottle on the right in the linked picture has staining most likely from contact with the metal parts of the sunken ship Gerth It is machine-made by a blow-and-blow machine no valve mark , about 4.
This bottle shows that the use of manganese dioxide to decolorize glass - the reason for the pink tint - continued until at least the late s at some glass companies. Click on the following links to view more images of this bottle: showing the interesting makers mark; no real neck showing the lug type external screw threads. This bottle was certainly used for mustard; the Gulden brand is still being made today though now packaged unfortunately in plastic. From these features it is reasonable to conclude that the bottle dates somewhere between the late s to early s.
Similar 'mustard' bottles were made by and listed in the Agnew Co. Catalog Agnew This specific design for Gulden was first patented by the company in and variations were used until the late 20th century Zumwalt Click to see an ad for Gulden's mustard. Photo courtesy Richard Mushing. The H over an A makers mark was used from about when trademarked to at least Toulouse ; Lockhart et al.
Unpublished manuscript This late style of mustard still retains the distinctive horizontal hoop rings seen on examples from a century previous. These type screw top mustard bottles are often seen in bottle makers catalogs from the first third or so of the 20th century Kearns-Gorsuch Bottle Co. Unfortunately for dating utility based on shape the barrel mustard style was made a very long time, i.
For example, a comparison of the first pictured bottle latest produced example pictured to the second and fourth bottles shows this subtle but observable difference. The third bottle pictured Western Spice Mills is narrower in the body but has a level of crudeness that strongly hints at an earlier production date. As with just about everything in bottle dating and typing, there are exceptions to most trends, though that does not necessarily negate the utility of these trends when considered in hand with other information and diagnostic features.
Click on to view an example of this barrel type. The specific example - the 'St. Louis or Tin-Top Mustard' - is illustrated in the lower left hand corner of the page. Machine-made examples of this later variation have been observed from at least as early as semi-automatic machine manufacture to as late as the s Illinois Glass Co. It should be noted that these types of barrel bottles were occasionally used for other condiments like horseradish and likely for various spices also.
Conversely, the covered later on this page was also commonly used for mustard during the last half of the 19th century Zumwalt However, sauces were packaged in a wide array of additional shapes during the period covered by this website, i. Refer to Betty Zumwalt's very informative book Ketchup, Pickles, Sauces - 19th Century Food in Glass for more information on the subject and images of some of this variety. Note: This book is still available new and used at sources like Amazon.
A few unusual sauce shapes were covered in the ketchup bottles section above; shapes which were likely used for non-ketchup sauce products also. For a sampling of the sauce bottle variety offered by one early 20th century bottle manufacturer, click which is a page comprised of scans of that company's entire catalog. In particular, look at pages through The following are examples of a few other sauce or condiment styles including for ketchup to show the variety.
As with most of these bottle typology pages, more examples will be added over time. This appears to be an early example of cup-bottom mold use and may indicate a later manufacture notwithstanding the presence of the pontil scar and overall crudity which speaks of a pre manufacture. It is also possible that this bottle was used for some other totally different product possibly a 'specialty' barber bottle or used for liquor though it has similarity in general form to fancier sauce bottles Zumwalt Click on the following links to view more images of this bottle: showing the glass tipped pontil scar;.
It is embossed with the noted lettering on one end of the somewhat uniquely shaped 'barrel' body. This bottle exhibits manufacturing characteristics of the later end of the noted company era early to mids in that it has a tooled double ring finish though has crudeness to the glass and no evidence of mold air venting. Click to see such of this bottle showing the distinctly 'barrel' shape to the body. The general shape described and pictured here, with the bulge or ring at the junction of the neck and shoulder, was a favored type container for dispensing horse radish.
This general style was also used for a variety of other food products which needed a wide mouth for content access and are virtually identical to some of the 'pickle' bottles discussed next Zumwalt It is square in cross-section, has a tooled one-part bead finish, was blown in a cup-bottom mold, and has one apparent mold air venting mark incorporated into the side mold seams at the same spot on opposite shoulders. The body has some crudity sunken and wavy glass that in hand with the other diagnostic features indicates a likely late s to the early s manufacture.
A check of Zumwalt shows this specific bottle covered under the section for D. Geer, even though the bottle the example pictured here and in Zumwalt's book is embossed with H. Originally this was thought to be a mold engravers error in switching the initials around. Since the initial writing of this section, the author has been in correspondence with a descendant of the Geer family and has been informed that there were two different Geer's in the food packaging industry in Massachusetts - David H. Geer, whom is discussed in Zumwalt, and Henry Denison Geer who was born in and listed as a 'farmer and fruit grower' in Three Rivers, Massachusetts - and the real user of this bottle pers.
With Susan Geer Downes Flaccus was first listed as in business in and operated until The stag's head trademark was registered in but noted that it had been 'used ten years' at that time Zumwalt ; Caniff These features give a likely manufacture date of to or so. After the latter date, the majority of all wide mouth bottles were being made by machines, although these types were being machine-made at least as early as and probably a bit before Illinois Glass Co.
Click to view the page from the catalog that shows a 'Machine-made' horse radish bottle of similar conformation. The pictured bottle has no diagnostic embossing and is solely identified by the label without which the bottle could not be positively identified as this style was used for various preserved food products, as noted earlier. The general shapes described here square and rectangular were used for horse radish until well into the 20th century.
Bottle makers catalogs from the s, s and s indicate the style was still in use, though by the late s and early s the finish had shifted to the increasingly more popular external screw threads. By the end of the s virtually all bottles of this style had external screw thread finishes. The ring at the juncture of the neck and shoulder did carry forward as an stylistic indicator of a horse radish bottle until the s Illinois Glass Co.
Louis Lake and G. Neunsch and others after manufactured this product between and about This bottle 7' tall, 2. Click on the following links to see more images of this bottle:;. One other trait this class of bottles share with each other is that they tend to be much larger than average capacity compared to other types of bottles, though as a user will see, smaller versions were utilized for smaller quantities or for food products that were individually smaller in unit size e.
Be aware also that just about any of the bottles listed in this section could have been - and were - used for any of the above noted food products and many more not listed; only an original label tells for sure, some of which are shown below. Bottle styles strongly identified with foods were the gothic or 'cathedral' styles. These designs originated during the midth century 'Gothic Revival' era in American and Europe which greatly effected the architecture of the period Deiss , pers.
Click to view some typical features. As noted earlier in the sauce section, glassmakers called these style bottles 'gothic. Gothic pickle bottles are a very commonly observed item usually fragmental on mid to late 19th century historic sites more rarely on early 20th century sites although the type is most commonly observed on historic sites dating from the late s to early s through mids Switzer ; Zumwalt ; Deiss ; Gerth ; empirical observations. Being a container for relatively perishable food products, these bottles were usually discarded shortly after use though as with most bottles during that era, re-use was variably common Busch ; click to view this reference.
Like with the gothic peppersauce bottles covered earlier, these type pickle bottles also were made in square and hexagonal versions as well as with scores of different and often very subtle decorative design differences. One of the earliest of the gothic pickle styles are the bottles like pictured to the right. These distinctively squatty wider in the body than later examples gothic pickles are attributed to the West Willington Glass Works CT and are referred to by collectors as 'Willington pickles. In fact, examples identical in form to the pictured one though amber in color are attributed to the Westford Glass Works, Westford, CT.
These bottles are pontil scared, have the type typical rolled and tooled one-part 'bead finishes' described more below and were most likely blown in a key or hinge mold actual examples have not been observed closely by the author. These bottles date from approximately the early to mids to mids. The two sizes 9' and 7. Both have elaborate crisscross lattice work in the large lower body and smaller shoulder panels on three sides; the fourth side had the label and does not have the lattice.
Both have iron or improved pontil scars on the base, typical for the style rolled and tooled one-part 'bead' finishes, lack any evidence of mold air venting, and were blown in key base hinge molds. Fragmental examples of gothic pickle bottles with this particular ornate design were found on the site of the Crowleytown Glass Works aka Atlantic Glass Works in New Jersey indicating that these bottles were likely made at that location which was in operation from to This style is also commonly found on Civil War campsites Russell The relatively ornate, square pickle bottle pictured to the left was most likely made between and It was blown in a post-bottom mold an unusual square mold post plate with no evidence of air venting and has no evidence of a pontil scar on the base.
It also has a type-typical which was formed by reheating glass at the shearing or cracking-off point and then rolling the pliable glass out and back on the extreme upper part of the neck with some type of glassworkers tool. It is sometimes hard to tell on these type finishes if it was formed from separately applied glass or by just working the reheated existing glass at the blowpipe removal point. In the case of this pickle bottle and all the square ones pictured on this page there is no evidence of the interface edge that one usually but not always can see or feel when separate glass was applied.
This particular bottle has decorative 'pillars' on the sides of the large body panels near the corners with a 'capital' or crowning feature at the top of the 'pillar' - a feature more typical of many earlier pre or so gothic pickles. Click on the following links to see more images of this bottle: showing the unusual square post-molded base conformation with beveled corners;.
This particular bottle has a rolled possibly applied? This is keeping with the observation that as the last third of the 19th century progressed the complexity of design decreased on gothic bottles in general. Click on the following links to view more images of this pickle bottle: showing the round base plate indentation; showing the relatively crude rolled or applied finish. The very large 13' tall with an approximate 1. The pictured illustration is from the Illinois Glass Company catalog and is almost identical in shape and size including the shoulder design and the 'scallop' effect at the bottom of the indented body panels.
These large bottles with their makers mark I. Virtually identical examples of these large pickle bottles with M. Embossed on the base and tooled finishes have also been noted by the author. These bottles were most likely made by the Mississippi Glass Co. Louis, Mo. Millgrove, IN. Apparently, this particular style was made by an assortment of different glass companies and originated at least as early as the Civil War and continued until at least as mouth-blown items.
The author has observed an example with an iron pontil scar but none that were machine-made Fairmount Glass Works ; Cumberland Glass Co. Click on the following links to view more images of the above pictured bottle:;;. Specifically, some 'luxury' food bottles including 'pale-green preserve jars' and a 'fluted pickle jar' from the James Mathews, which sank of the coast of Australia in , were reported to be not pontil scarred Boow However, items on that ship were almost certainly not American made.
However, none of the gothic pickle bottles on the Steamship Bertrand - which sank about 7 months earlier on April 1, - were reported to be pontil scarred though a few other food bottle types were Switzer This likely supports the notion that the pickle bottles from the two American ships were the products of different glass companies which had different transition times for the switch to snap case tools. The point here is that the transition time from pontil rods to snap case tools was long and glassmaker and maybe regionally specific.
That is, the earliest square examples approx. This is a trend that was common with many bottles types [e. This subtle trend is shown reasonably well in a comparison of this sections photos. Although this trend is real and can be observed, it is a dating diagnostic feature hard to apply without extensive experience with these type bottles. More specifically, a trend towards simplification in the form of an absence of the pillar and crown feature on the body panel edges seemed to have occurred sometime in the s; gothic pickles after that time rarely if ever have that feature.
This appears to have been followed in the late s or early s with the general loss of the decorative details in the upper portions of the body panels, although the author has noted some earlier pontiled blowpipe and iron styles examples ss that also have such simplified decorative features. Remember, just about nothing in the historic bottle world is absolute! These typically later examples bluish aqua bottle on the left side of the left image above have simplified to the point that the only gothic decorative features - besides the peaked body panels - are on the shoulders framing the arching top of those panels, including a fleur de les like detail at the highest point.
All four of the pictured gothic pickle bottles are approximately 11' to The approximate age of these bottles from left to right is early to mids, s, to , and early to mid s. Click to view a close-up of the two older bottles which points out the decorative panel edge pillar and crown feature as well as other decorative features. Due to the passing of our beloved father and husband, Paul H. Meijer on July 9, , the family is selling his books and those of his widow.
There are five categories of books: 1 English language, 2 French language, 3 Dutch language, 4 rare books, and 5 all the books in numerical order [a work in progress],. Eventually these categories will be subdivided. While Paul Meijer had broad interests — he liked Spinoza, for example — most of his books were in the Dutch language. In his heart he always remained a Dutchman. Please email book petruscamper. Thank you! History of science books in English are listed further down. Last updated: Miriam Meijer. Beijing : Wen wu chu ban she, Siqueiros de la A a la Z.
Beijing Shi : Xue yuan chu ban she, Carolein Smit : Works. Die Baugeschichte der salischen Abteikirche in Hersfeld. Emblemas moralizadas. Kupferstich-Kabinett, author. Indian paintings : the collection of the Dresden Kupferstich-Kabinett. Svetlana Stepanovna and A. Das Wiener Aquarell. Peyton, eds. Arts of Korea : histories, challenges, and perspectives.
Gainesville : University of Florida Press, .
Fine Arts Library Collections
Wolfgang Stiller. A new era : Scottish modern art, Amsterdam : Van Gogh Museum, c Princeton : Princeton University Press, . Mechelen ondergronds : kelders en andere krochten. Soest : Uitgeverij Boekscout, c Warisan Kita our heritage. Singapore : The Malay Heritage Foundation, . Chengdu : Ba Shu shu she, Second sight : the paradox of vision in contemporary art. Luci del Nord : Impressionismo in Normandia. Bard, Aosta Italia : Forte di Bard editore, . Hans Thoma : Wanderer zwischen den Welten. Oberhausen : Athena, . Impressionismo e avanguardie : capolavori dal Philadelphia museum of art.
Francisco Toledo. Cinisello Balsamo : Silvana Picasso, Picabia, Ernst : new perspectives. London : Archetype Publications, Milan : Electa, . Leonardo plagiario?. Lancino : Carabba, . Dieter Kraemer : Retrospektive. Corpus vasorum antiquorum. Berlin [etc. Additional volumes: bd. La pittura nella Sardegna del Trecento. Perugia : Morlacchi editore U. Buenos Aires : KBB, Palazzo Torlonia. Hilde Van de Walle : related forms. Oostkamp : Stichting Kunstboek Surf tribe. Warhol vs Gartel : Hyp pop.
Milano : Prearo Editore, . Vultus misericordiae : il venerato crocifisso di Besana. Arcidosso GR : Effigi, Beyond given knowledge : investigation, quest and exploration in modernism and the avant-gardes. Berlin ; Boston : De Gruyter, . Giuseppe Veneziano : mash-up. The Barber Institute of Fine Arts. Soesterberg : Uitgeverij Aspekt, . La escultura en vidrio. Mosaici antichi in Italia : regione quarta : pavimenti musivi e cementizi di Villa Adriana. Pisa : Istituti Editoriali e poligrafici internazionali, .
Niederjahna : Donatus Verlag, c Thomas Gainsborough : the modern landscape. Hamburg : Hamburger Kunsthalle ; Munich : Hirmer, . Berlin : Hirnkost, Promessa del dorico : case, archetipi e analogie fra Oriente e Occidente. Vorotnikova, eds. Moskva : Buksmart, Ferrara : Fondazione Ferrara arte, .
De Ploeg : avant-garde in Groningen Berlin : Gebr. Mann Verlag, c Beijing : Ke xue chu ban she, Ribe Kunstmuseum. Ribe : Ribe Kunstmuseum, Die protestantischen Hinterglasbilder des Stadtmuseums Kaufbeuren. Thalhofen : Bauer-Verlag, Experimental Beijing : gender and globalization in Chinese contemporary art. Durham : Duke University Press, Sehnsucht nach dem himmlischen Jerusalem : das Emblemprogramm der Stettener Schlosskapelle Stuttgart : W.
Kohlhammer Verlag, Kaufbeuren : Kunsthaus Kaufbeuren, c Munich : Hirmer Verlag, . Venezia : Marsilio, febbraio Furnes, Belgium : Hannibal Publishing, c The art of the Yellow Springs : understanding Chinese tombs. London : Reaktion Books Ltd. On Chinese art : cases and concepts. Chicago : Art Media Resources, -. Boris Zaborov : lo spazio del silenzio. Henk Peeters, Jan Schoonhoven : da zero a infinito. Milano : Dep Art, . Leonard Cohen : a crack in everything. Tianjin Shi : Tianjin ren min mei shu chu ban she, Beijing : Ren min ri bao chu ban she, Zhengzhou Shi : Zhongzhou gu ji chu ban she, Hangzhou : Zhejiang ren min mei shu chu ban she, Beijing Shi : Wen wu chu ban she, Hamilton, NJ : Grounds for Sculpture, .
Historical dictionary of Baroque art and architecture. Vadim Valentinovich , ed. Permanent collection : there are always alternate possibilities. Aspen, C. Abbate, Francesco and Antonello Ricco, eds. Foggia : Claudio Grenzi editore, . Paris : Onestar Press, . Cult of the machine : precisionism and American art. Archeologia, arte e storia in Piemonte : notizie inedite : studi in onore di Bruno Signorelli. Divine bodies : sacred imagery in Asian art. Divina creatura : la donna e la moda nelle arti del secondo Ottocento. Capannoli e le sue chiese : anni di storia.
Ai Weiwei. Desde y para la memoria. Morelia, Mich. Roma : Gangemi Editore, Viena : Der Verlag Holzhausen, Herbert Albrecht. Hohenems : Bucher, Lisette , author. Lodewijk Schelfhout : Nederlands eerste kubist.
- Publisher Series: Folio SF.
- O Come Rejoicing;
- mvbeutf.tk Ebooks and Manuals;
- cofrgoa.tk Ebooks and Manuals.
- Southern Gothic and Other Stories.
- The Silver Notebook.
Zwolle : Waanders Uitgevers, . Melle en het anarchisme : catalogus bij de tentoonstelling : het engagement van Melle, visionair schilder. From East to West : the quest for Chinese export porcelain with western themes, Lisboa : Scribe, Capriccio e natura : arte nelle Marche del secondo Cinquecento : percorsi di rinascita. Varia nummorum. I Mola da Coldrerio tra dissenso e accademia nella Roma barocca : ricerche tra architettura, pittura e disegno.
Lusingare la vista : il colore e la magnificenza a Roma tra tardo Rinascimento e Barocco. Paris : Klincksieck, . Teramo : Palumbi, . Paris, France : Onestar Press, . Marshall, and Andrew Yip, eds. The legacies of Bernard Smith : essays on Australian art, history and cultural politics. All the things I lost in the flood : essays on pictures, language, and code. New York : Rizzoli Electa, Milano : Electa, Ludovica Carbotta : the shotgun, the invisible rail, and the spectacled tyrant.
Roma : Nero, Orazio Antonaci, architetto, urbanista, designer, artista : inventario interventi edilizia residenziale pubblica Melfi Italia : Libria, novembre Zwolle : Waanders Uitgevers, c London art worlds : mobile, contingent, and ephemeral networks, Rasheed Araeen. Boundless peaks : ink pantings by Minol Araki. Bologna : Bononia University Press, .
Mario Arlati : incomplete flags. Maria Austria, fotografe. The mercantile effect : on art and exchange in the Islamicate world during the 17th and 18th centuries. London : Gingko Library, Milan : Officina Libraria, . Crises and new beginnings : art in Slovenia Ljubljana : Moderna Galerija, Colouring the Caribbean : race and the art of Agostino Brunias. Manchester : Manchester University Press, The Monarch of the Glen : Landseer. Mantova : Maurizio Corraini, .
Nose peak. Bologna : Ante Quem, Christian Balzano : resilienza. Kerouac beat painting. Mirko Baricchi : derive. La Spezia : Brain, . Art, commerce and colonialism Artemisia Gentileschi in a changing light. London ; Turnhout : Harvey Miller Publishers, . Roberto Barni : le cose vogliono esistere.
Arte y magia negra ; El origen del mundo y la modernidad profanadora. Madrid : Editorial Manuscritos, junio de Paolo De Poli artigiano, imprenditore, designer. Padova : Il poligrafo, . Gianfranco Meggiato : il giardino delle muse silenti. Cinisello Balsamo Milano : Silvana, Marina De Marchi, eds. Pistoia : Giorgio Tesi editrice, . Corpus laminae : Belgische koperen graf- en gedenkplaten Brugge : Uitgeverij van de Wiele, c Torino : Allemandi, . Tiepolo segreto. Milano, Italia : Officina Libraria, Bologna : Fondantico Antonio Beni : Han Bennink.
Roma : GB editoriA, . Istanbul : Galerist ; Berlin : Revolver Publishing, c Torino : Prinp, Carl Blechen : Innenansichten eines Genies. Berlin : Lukas Verlag, The Gozo Cathedral : its history and treasures. Victoria : The Cozo Cathedral chapter, Villanova di Guidonia RM : Aletti editore, novembre Bilder der Seele : Auguste Rodins Zeichnungen. Hildesheim : Georg Olms Verlag, Costellazioni infinite : International Festival of Light Art. Fisciano SA : Gutenberg edizioni, . Caterina Arcuri : transforma.
Baronissi SA : Gutenberg edizioni, . Gehouwen, gesneden, geschonken : middeleeuwse beelden uit de collectie Schoufour-Martin. Rotterdam : Museum Boijmans Van Beuningen . Sironi svelato : il restauro del murale della Sapienza. Roma : Campisano editore, . Photography in India : from archives to contemporary practice. Duchamps Readymade. Pittrici della rivoluzione : le allieve di Jacques-Louis David. Bologna : Pendragon, . Aldo Borgonzoni : catalogo generale delle opere pittoriche. Salzburg : Residenz Verlag, c Rixt Amarins , author.
Document Nederland. Loving art is art : contemporary artists from Lithuania. Y-Paraguay : contemporary artists from Paraguay.
Sillage Integrale T A
The desire of the medium. Arnhem : ArtEZ Press, c November in Brandenburg an der Havel. Worms : Wernersche Verlagsgesellschaft, c Botero dialogue avec Picasso. Reuniting the masters : European drawings from West Coast collections. Trappole di luce. Milano : Poleschi arte, . Gilbert Bretterbauer : Rekonfiguration. Editor, c Nok : African sculpture in archaeological context. Madrid : Antonio Machado Libros, . The matter of photography in the Americas. New York : Bloomsbury Visual Arts, Mario Sironi e le arti povere : assenso e dissenso.
Leiden : Uitgeverij De Muze, John Lockwood Kipling : arts and crafts in the Punjab and London. Artists working from life. London : Royal Academy of Arts , . Abbas Akhavan. Berlin : Distanz, . Made in America : the thousand lights of New York. Frozen in Time : photographs. New York : Glitterati Incorporated, Roma : Carocci editore, novembre Settia, eds. Borghi nuovi, castelli e chiese nel Piemonte medievale : studi in onore di Angelo Marzi.
Torino : Nuova Trauben, . Thumbs down. Il polittico Costabili : prospettive incrociate. Il tempietto di Bramante nel monastero di San Pietro in Montorio. Roma : Edizioni Quasar, Caravaggio i musici. Venezia : Marsilio Editori, . Spazi sacri che danno da pensare. Melfi Potenza : Libria, Quay Brothers : the black drawings : Philadelphia Pennsylvania Mario Carotenuto : autoritratto degli anni Settanta. The poetry of nature : Edo paintings from the Fishbein-Bender collection.
The value of taste : auction prices and the evolution of taste in Dutch and Flemish Golden Age painting, Riti, pratiche e immagini della morte in Puglia : la chiesa e la confraternita di S. Arcidosso Gr : Effigi editore, novembre Fontanellato Parma : Ricci, Walter Resentera : le figure sui muri. Caselle di Sommacampagna : Cierre edizioni, Ismael Smith : la belleza y los monstruos. Paintings I : percorsi nella pittura contemporanea da una collezione privata. Milano : Scalpendi editore, novembre Johannes Hispanus. Loris Cecchini : tavolo parallelo alla terra, terra parallela al tavolo.
Psychology and the arts : perceptions and perspectives. Savona : Centro ligure per la storia della ceramica, Memoria e tutela : il patrimonio artistico del territorio di Monteveglio. Bologna : Bononia University Press, ottobre La loma del orto. Chen Zhen. Eugenio Chicano : paisajes andaluces.
Murphy, eds. The Tang Shipwreck : art and exchange in the 9th century. Singapore : Asian Civilisations Museum, . Salzburg : Fotohof edition Restauri a Pompei : dalle case di Championnet alla domus dei mosaici geometrici. Ravenna : Longo editore, . Emil Cimiotti : denn was innen, das ist aussen.
Berlin : Edition Braus, Marino Marini : visual passions : encounters with masterworks of sculpture from the Etruscans to Henry Moore. Luigi Fumagalli : architetto ingegnere : protagonista delle trasformazioni urbane del secondo Ottocento a Francavilla Fontana e dintorni. Galatina Le : Congedo editore, Tapestries from the Burrell Collection. London : Philip Wilson Publishers, an imprint of I.
Foligno : Editoriale umbra, . Women with cameras anonymous. Petra Collins : coming of age. Lucio Fontana e Leonardo da Vinci : un confronto possibile. Milano : Scalpendi editore, luglio Spanish royal patronage : portraits as propaganda. Cagli nel Seicento : Anton Francesco Berardi e il suo palazzo. Ancona, Italia : Il lavoro editoriale, . Le arti e la spada : la committenza artistica dei Templari e dei cavalieri di Malta in Emilia e in Romagna.
Bologna : Paolo Emilio Persiani, . Martin Creed : say cheese!. Wassenaar : Museum Voorlinden, c Crocetta del Montello TV : Antiga edizioni, . Turner a Milano. Dialoghi tra arte e architettura negli anni della ricostruzione Giovanni Francesco Guerrieri, Gianluca Quaglia : il miglior posto : un dialogo tra artisti nel tempo. Er zit iets achter : over filosofie en kunst.
Berlin : Revolver Publishing, . Vertical horizons. Dying is a solo. Amsterdam : Roma Publications, Messina : Mesogea, . I volti della Riforma : Lutero e Cranach nelle collezioni medicee. Milano : Giunti, . Riccardo De Marchi : Rovine e ruderi : conservazione e progetto. Utopie : pensieri, appunti, riflessioni, — Firenze : Morgana edizioni, . Richard Deacon : About Time. Bielefeld : Kerber, c Arte contemporanea in Sardegna Arezzo : Magonza, . The hidden history of American fashion : rediscovering twentieth-century women designers.
Geniaal getekend : Fodor en zijn verzameling. Amsterdam : Amsterdam Museum, . Werken van Maria Sibylla Merian : de Schatkamercollectie. We are food : je bent wat je eet — over de kunst van voedsel. Oostkamp : Stichting Kunstboek, c Cinisello Balsamo Milano : Silvana Editoriale, Art patronage, family, and gender in Renaissance Florence : the Tornabuoni. Fasano Br — Italia : Schena editore, . Foligno : Il Formichiere Amsterdamse Limburgers.
Gouda : Arti Legi, . Sint-Amandsberg : Art Paper Editions Early Christian mosaic pavements in Macedonia. Skopje : Calamus, Roma : Gangemi Editore, . Conoscenza e restauro degli intonaci e delle superfici murarie esterne di Venezia : campionature, esemplificazioni, indirizzi di intervento. Saonara Padova : Il prato, If you are not there, where are you?
Tobias Dostal. Bielefeld : Kerber Verlag, . Thomas Andrew , author. Sacred to the touch : Nordic and Baltic religious wood carving.