Werbung und Werte: Mittel ihrer Versprachlichung im Deutschen und im Polnischen (German Edition)

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In this paper, we pick up where Pollard and Sag leave off. We propose a novel formulation of Principle A which determines the precise constraints on virtually all of the functions of self-pronouns in English. The architecture of this principle is such that the self-pronoun continues to be subject to a series of constraints whose applicability, like Pollard and Sag's Principle A, is dependent on the environment in which the self-pronoun is found.

Namely, if a self-pronoun is locally o-free, then the next concern is whether there is a higher thematic rather than syntactic argument available. If so, then the self-pronoun must be bound thematically; if not, then the next in a series of if-then statements is checked. We will show that these statements are crucially ordered with respect to one another, and suggest that this correlates with the frequency of each related function. This extended Principle A is able to account for a wide spectrum of data, both attested and gathered with original experiments.

Psycholinguistics The question of how people interpret spatial relations between objects involves the conception of spatial dimensions and their poles in a given situation. I will introduce a descriptive model of the cognitive conception of spatial relations between objects that is consistently based on an anthropomorphological classification. The model starts at the assumption according to which people attribute proper places as well as regions to objects. The criteria according to which the cognitive attribution of proper places and regions is made relate to functional aspects of human action and knowledge.

From the overlapping relations between proper places and regions, we may predict which objects will be conceived of as spatially related at all, and can derive the distinction of topological relations between objects, i. A more specific characterization of the relative location of objects is accomplished by the human conception of spatial dimensions and their poles.

Here, the dimensional interpretation of a situation is derived from the asymmetries of the human body. The individual that interprets his or her spatial environment occupies the spacedimensoning Origo, which is the basic precondition for cognition of dimensional relations. Subsequently, instances other than the space-cognizing individual him- or herself can become the Origo through mental translation and rotation processes; these processes generally involve the patterns of anthropomorphous projection.

What has been described in previous theoretical approaches by means of classification of seperate systems of spatial reference, can now be derived in a unified way from cognitive-psychological factors; i. I will report on empirical results that account for the suitability of this descriptive model as an explanative model of the actual use of dimensional prepositions in different situations.

Morphology Comparability of adjectives answers to a kind of adjective meaning - scalability, defined as a range, versus a point on a scale. In English, the morphological question of whether comparison in relation to a higher degree is expressed by the inflected forms in - er and - est or their periphrastic equivalents, more and most, depends on numerous variables: length of word, position of stress, form of suffix, if any, etymology, frequency, as well as presumed free variation.

The availability of two ways of expressing higher degree in the quality of an adjective raises the usage question of which form should be used with any particular adjective? BOLINGER claims that the semantic issue of degrees affects the morphological realization of adjective comparison, inhibiting the synthetic - er morpheme even under conditions that would otherwise permit it.

While semantic classification of adjectives does reveal some tendencies in the morphological manifestation of adjective gradation, grammarians contend that the choice between inflectional and periphrastic comparison is largely determined by the length of the adjective QUIRK et al. Although adjective length is cited as the main determinant of morphological variation, a major problem arises with 2-syllable adjectives, many of which permit both forms of comparison. Thus it readily becomes clear that sheer prosody and phonological structure of an adjective are not sufficient criteria to determine which form should be used with any particular adjective; the syntactic role an adjective plays also warrants consideration.

While most adjectives that are inflected for comparison can also take the periphrastic forms with more and most , they assume the periphrastic form more often when they are predicative and are followed by a correlative than -clause. Additionally, there seem to be fewer restrictions on using the periphrastic forms with adjectives in correlative clauses of proportion. This paper will examine adjective gradation and illustrate how the periphrastic form of comparison is gaining ground in current American English usage, confirming the diachronic tendency for periphrastic forms to replace morphological ones over time, supported by theories of morphological language typology and grammaticalization.

Having spent the last year gathering data and documenting actual usage of comparability in adjectives, it will be shown that the tendency to employ the periphrastic form in adjective gradability is particularly widespread with mono-syllabic adjectives, indicating a 21 st century irreverence for established prescriptive grammar. Zu diesem Zweck wurden ca. Das Computerprogramm "Sprechkarte" erlaubt es, die Antworten 1 , 2 , 3 oder 4 der Sprecher geographisch sichtbar zu machen. Theory of Linguistics Although coordinate constructions are very common in natural languages, they are among the most difficult phenomena to describe in any linguistic theory.

In this paper, I shall try to develop a way of speaking about coordination as a kind of linguistic speed-up device. Since any coordinated structure is intrinsically more complex than its conjoined parts, the formation rules for coordination must have evolved later than the formation rules for non-coordinated structures. Languages solve the technical problem of coordination by simply repeating formation rules. Thus, coordination as such is the recursive technique of applying sentence formation rules more than once. Conjunctors mark the beginning of a secondary procedure for sentence formation.

However, obeying some constraints, a secondary procedure does not have to activate all formation rules actived in a previous procedure. This allows for treating gapping and left-deletion together with other structurally less demanding forms of coordination. The difference between easy and difficult forms of coordination is mainly how general the repeated formation rules are. The procedural approach also claims that representation of coordination procedures are impossible to achieve if no further allowances for certain types of groupings are made. I shall try to show that even complicated coordinated structures can be readily represented if the usual two-dimensional plane for stemmata or dependency trees is expanded into a third dimension.

Wir unterscheiden daher drei Bereiche im Lexikon im Unterschied zu, z. Funktion , die Restriktionen auf das lexikalische und syntaktische Umfeld des Diskursmarkers, und die stilistischen Eigenarten. ROTH Dabei erhebt sich die Frage nach jenen Veranlagungen und anerzogenen resp. Psycholinguistics Since experimentally induced speech errors are often triggered by certain carefully selected tongue twisters, we may rather easily predict what kind of segmental errors subjects will produce in laboratory settings.

Nevertheless, there is a handful of factors that have been found to constrain phonological slips of the tongue in naturalistic speech as well. The following constraints have been proposed so far:. The present paper discusses the effect of the constraints above in naturalistic phonological errors in the Finnish language.

It is found that the constraints form a hierarchy in which phonotactics and structural properties play the most important role. The calculations indicate that the power of initialness effect is less than chance and overruled by another structural constraint, namely position similarity. On the basis of the present data, it is also evident that adjacency constrains phonological errors more strictly than either word class or phrase-internalness and that lexical constraint can be seen in only one fourth of the errors. The results can be interpreted to shed light on both the word-internal cohesion and architecture of the speech production system.

Although we cannot predict when an error will occur, we may expect it to be of certain type. Sociolinguistics This paper will discuss the prospect of using personal letters for the study of linguistic change and variation. This is not a new idea: a number of linguists interested in the history of the English language have been doing just that for a number of years already the Corpus of Early English Correspondence is perhaps the foremost example.

The author's interest here, however, is to point out the possibility of compiling a corpus of correspondence that is not language based, but language-community based. Choosing eighteenth-century Croatia as an exemplary time and place, the author will describe a language situation that was considerably different from that of England at the same time and even for several centuries before: non-native languages e.

A corpus of multilingual correspondence would be advantageous for the historical study of language use in Croatia. First of all, it would allow the linguist to see how one language community used different varieties including different languages to communicate among themselves - and how these patterns of language use changed with time.

Secondly, it could shed light on the mechanisms of linguistic change caused by language contact. Finally, due to its content, such a corpus would be of interest to linguists and non-linguists alike e. Phonology Syllable contraction in Taiwanese Southern Min has long attracted the attention of many Chinese linguists. In the descriptive model syllable contraction results from deletion, and how it occurs remains almost unexplained. First, the association of segments and the skeleton tier begins with both edges, affecting onset and consonantal coda alone.

In addition, V-neutralization applies even when the mid vowel constitutes rime with the preceding vowel. Consider 5. Each of these particles has different discoursal meanings and functions. The privious studies have shown that modal particles are usually unaccented. Thus, accentuation is said to be very important for the functions of particles when they are spoken. On the other hand, prosody such as intonation and accent, itself plays an important role in human speech communication. The speaker can express subtle meanings, intentions, and emotions by means of prosody, while her interlocuter can understand them almost exactly by hearing it.

The problem arises when prosody is used in sentences with modal particles, as is always the case in spoken German. It is suggested the focusing strategy of speakers using modal particles is influenced by the complexity of mutual belief. Finally, these prosodic characteristics of German modal particles concluded by the analysis are compared with those of Japanese modal particles.

Psycholinguistics The on-line processing demands of morphological parsers whether human or silicon of morphology include, but are not exhausted by two requirements: morphology has to uncover the lexical identity of the stem for eventual lexical lookup. Moreover it must reveal the morphosyntactic categories for interface with syntax. Verbs are more problematic still, as a nondefective verb has to forms per lexical entry. Note also that inflectional morphs occur frequently in texts as the ratio of running non-zero inflectional morphs to running words in Finnish is 0.

The present series of simple lexical decision and lexical decision with priming will further elaborate on the stem allomorph model of Finnish NIEMI et al. Sociolinguistics At the time of Independence in , Senegal along with most other former French colonies in Africa declared French the sole official language. Almost fourty years later, French is still the language of administration and government, the exclusive medium of public education, and the language of the urban elite. French is spoken as a first language by less than a quarter of one per cent of school-age children.

This paper will attempt to describe the well-defined contexts in which French is used in Senegalese society, the contrasting socioeconomic statuses of those who claim to use French and those who do not, and the images of the French language carried in each group. The paper will demonstrate the correlation in Senegal between socioeconomic status and knowledge of French; the correlation between the perceptions of French and its official status as the de facto only means of economic advancement; the contradiction between the official language policy and the social reality of the country; and the impact of such a policy on development goals.

Phonetics Many studies have indicated that speech slows down immediately before a pause, but very little is known about the influence of a pause on the temporal organization of the utterance as a whole. The present study, using Japanese speech material, examines if the effect of an intra-sentence pause is localized to the segments immediately preceding the pause, or if it affects other parts of the utterance as well. A Japanese test sentence, with a possible pause location at a major syntactic boundary roughly in the middle of the sentence, was produced by a number of native speakers under two contrasting conditions, i.

Based on acoustic measurements, the effects of intra-sentence pause insertion was examined by analyzing the articulation rate obtained for each of the eight demi-phrases that constituted the test sentence. The results showed that the most conspicuous change in the articulation rate due to pause insertion occurred in the demi-phrase immediately preceding the intra-sentence pause. The results also showed that the insertion of an intra-sentence pause had an additional effect of shifting the overall articulation rate of the rest of the utterance.

The shift was found to be realized either as increase or decrease depending on the speaker. Thus, the effect of an intra-sentence pause was found to manifest itself not only as the decrease in the articulation rate of the segment immediately preceding the pause but also as the shift in the overall articulation rate of the rest of the utterance.

Semantics The paper deals with two main issues, namely it considers the status of blends vs. As far as the first problem is concerned blends are viewed against the concepts of cognitrive metaphor, metonymy and personification. The basic question is whether with the advent of blends there is still place for the other three above concepts in cognitive semantic theory.

The result of the inquiry shows that personification can be exhaustively accounted for by blends theory, whereas metonymy cannot be analysed adequately in terms of blends. Some metaphors can be viewed as blends but some should retain their present status. When cognitive metaphors are viewed not only as nominal, gerundial and prepositional correspondences but also as correspondences of verbs or other predicates with their arguments there seem to be at least two consequences of this stance. Firstly, predicate argument structures can be compared in the source and target domains with respect to invariance hypothesis which deals with preservation of topological structures from source to target domains.

Secondly, it brings the theory of cognitive metaphor closer to other linguistic theories such as classical semantics and even generative grammar. Sociolinguistics In recent years much progress has been made concerning certain aspects e. From a syntactic point of view, these and several other studies have shown that languages or grammars in contact interact at all levels of linguistic structures e.

This interaction is not random, but it is rule-governed. For instance, is codeswitching structure determined by the grammar of one of the participating languages in a given speech situation; or is it the case that it is determined evenly by all the participating languages? This paper examines these issues in the light of CS data involving English with selected African languages and against the backdrop of the diglossic relationship that exists between English and these languages. In this relationship English is the High language and African languages are the Low languages.

Accordingly, in their linguistic behavior African bilingual speakers tend to draw linguistic items from English when speaking an African language. It is argued that structurally the resulting codeswitching speech is almost exclusively governed by the syntactic rules of the matrix language, in this case the participating African language. Evidence for this argument is provided and include features such as word order within an NP, verbal inflections, subject pronoun copying, and double plural marking. The implications of this argument for the search for universal constraints in codeswitching are examined.

Die Stellungnahmen zu diesem Thema sind unterschiedlich. Ziel dieser Studie ist festzustellen, ob der Halbvokal [j] ein im Lexikon der Sprache distinktives Segment ist oder nicht. Syntax It is a familiar observation that in multiple wh constructions where movement could potentially affect a number of wh -phrases, it is the structurally superior wh -phrase that must be chosen for movement. The familiar minimal pair in 1 illustrates this "Superiority Effect". Who saw what? The general phenomenon of an operation being required to affect the structurally highest member in its set of potential operands is also observed in German Sentence Negation henceforth GSN.

In German sentences containing indefinite noun phrases, prefixing one of the indefinites with the morpheme k - as shown in 3 marks sentence negation. When multiple indefinites are present, it is the structurally superior one that must be k -marked. Sentences that violate this pattern simply do not express neutral sentence negation 2c.

Eine Frau sah einen Mann. A woman saw a man. K eine Frau sah einen Mann. Neg-a woman saw a man. Eine Frau sah k einen Mann. A woman saw Neg-a man.! That is, I argue that both constructions involve movement and that the sentence negation structure for 2c is ruled on the same grounds as 1b. Further I show the compatibility of my proposal with GSN involving definite noun phrases. I also demonstrate that apparent counterexamples to the generalization above can be attributed to the presence of a tripartite structure induced by focus or a generic operator. My proposal, if correct, has important consequences for the analysis of negation, and also suggests that superiority is a general phenomenon, extending beyond wh -movement.

HORNSTEIN presents a Minimalist reinterpretation of this phenomenon, suggesting that a locally bound reflexive is a trace, created by A-movement of the antecedent, in a Case position reflexivization henceforth. Although it derives the long-noted distributional similarity of A-traces and reflexives, and is thus quite attractive, Hornstein's suggestion is not tenable. This study presents a re-examination of binding phenomena within the Minimalist framework, and concludes that anaphors undergo A-movement, thus becoming A-traces, in LF; hence, their distributional similarity follows.

Instead, this study adopts Lasnik's forthcoming suggestion that A-movement does not leave a trace. Without A-traces, reflexivization does not hold, favoring a more traditional treatment of reflexives viz.

(Grundthemen der Literaturwissenschaft) de Gruyter (2018).pdf

Language and politics have rarely been more fatefully intertwined than at present. All of these developments place insistent new demands on linguists to rededicate themselves to public linguistics in the next century. Lexicography In der modernen Phraseologieforschung treten semantische Aspekte und die phraseologischen Komponenten immer mehr in den Vordergrund. Dementsprechend werden onomasiologische bzw. Die Studie diskutiert bzw. Bei der praktischen lexikographischen Untersuchung kommen z.

Zur Illustration dieser Formen des Sprachkontakts und ihrer Auswirkungen auf die Herausbildung einer Norm, konzentriere ich mich auf Beispiele aus dem Bereich der Aussprache. Mein Vortrag ist in vier Teile gegliedert: 1 Was sagt der Markt? Wer Vorschriften, Anweisungen, Anleitungen befolgen soll, der will eindeutig erfahren: was soll ich - der Leser - wann, wo und wie machen? Verleitet ein Text zum Weiterlesen, dann ist es dem Verfasser gelungen, interessant zu schreiben.

Wie kann man technische Dokumentation interessant schreiben? Psycholinguistics Conceptualizations of productivity and creativity as one versus two basic processes underlying novel verbal output lie at the heart of restrictive cognitive versus functional semantic theories of linguistics. I argue for a semantic, non-syntactic, explanation of the data. Indeed, syntactically similar items behave differently i. Moreover, we observe very strong similarities across languages. Other pairs of divergent quasi-synomyms i.

The possibility of subcategorizing a NP object proves only to be a sufficient condition for NCA but not a necessary one i. Likewise, the form "le", "en", "y" of the pronominalisation of the missing infinitival VP complement is not in itself a reliable criteria, but basically locative matrix verbs requiring a "y" VP proform i. Other semantically orientated parameteers intentionality and aspect are currently investigated.

However, I confess that my still tentative preliminary results do not yet provide a single explanation if any of the lexical phenomenon at hand. Computational Linguistics Augmentative und alternative Kommunikation ist das Forschungsgebiet, auf dem Methoden und Systeme entwickelt werden, die z. Morphology Phonetic criteria are the basis of the division of Modern Chinese languages into Mandarin and Southern Chinese.

According to these principles Wu languages Lower Yangzi belong to the socond group. In word-formation Modern Chinese languages are using either prepositional or postpositional models. This may be shown in male and female animal names. Word-formative isoglosses divide Chinese Languages into Northern postpositional Mandarin and Wu and Southern prepositional. Thus Wu languages appear to be rather transistional between North and South than purely Southern ones. Dies wird besonders deutlich an einem bislang kaum beachteten Teilgebiet der Reform, der Variantenschreibung.

Bekanntlich wird unterschieden zwischen gleichberechtigten Varianten z. Pragmatisch sind Argumentationen deshalb komplexe Sprechhandlungen, die sich von anderen Sprechhandlungen wie z. Verben des Meinens evozieren z. Texte und Textsorten lassen sich u. Computational Linguistics In this paper we present an approach, conceptual cartography, which accelerates and facilitates substantially accessing the contents of textual documents. Conceptual cartography consists of graphical mapping of concepts in a document using a list of complex terms classed in order of importance and arranged according to two semantical relationships: proximity , which includes different sense relationships such as hyponymy between concepts, and association , which uses the combinational properties of concepts to retrieve terms in semantical association.

Each one of these relationships creates a network of concepts that can be expanded and explored. For example, after extracting the complex terms of a text BECKTON by Termplus , a multilingual and modular complex-term extraction unit developed at CIRAL, Laval University a network of relationships may be generated for each of the terms extracted, as we have done here with Canadian law :.

These networks are generated at great speeds providing an efficient environment for accessing the contents of documents. A user can get a bird's eye view of the contents of a document by simply browsing through the list of terms extracted by Termplus , or create and navigate through the semantical networks to obtain very precise information from a document for divers applications such as construction of thesauri and lexicological databases, alignment of complex terms, information retrieval, document classification, etc. From a text input the system gives back rich syntactic structures containing lexical, phrasal, grammatical, and thematic information.

The IPS system focuses on a robustness, b genericity, and c deep linguistic analyses. Robustness is required for efficient and reliable NLP tools. Thus, when a complete analysis fails, partial structures are still exploitable for NLP applications. In speech synthesis, for instance, the need for disambiguation in some French liaison contexts requires more than a surface analysis of the sentence.

In addition, the use of such detailed analyses is essential to get satisfactory translation results as well as effective linguistic tools for language tutoring. Z fz fa, fb etc being grammatical function labels like subject and object. In their imp lementation in logic programming using PATR formalism with due modifications. In this paper, we discuss the treatment of variation of subcategorization properties of words as in: 7a They give John a book. Different usage patterns are accounted for derived subcategorization frames.

Anstelle des alveodentalen bulgarischen l-Lautes wird in bestimmten Positionen vor allem von jungen Sprechern ein bilabialer Laut artikuliert. Im vorliegenden Beitrag stellt man sich an erster Stelle die Aufgabe, die Positionen festzustellen, in denen der alveodentale bulgarische l-Laut durch einen bilabialen Laut ersetzt wird.

Vor einem Vorderzungenvokal artikuliert der Bulgare immer ein alveodentales l. Wenn ja, in welchen Regionen kommt sie vor? This paper will argue that a single mechanism in a speech production model should be used to generate sublexical slips and the superficially quite distinct type of error known as word blends. This paper argues that word blends are better seen as sublexical substitutions. A single syllabic constituent in a target word is replaced by the identical constituent - viewing these as segmental rather than syllabic constituent errors does not affect the argument being made here - from an intruding competing word.

This approach allows a principled distinction between target and intruder, and explains why only one word, the target, provides the blend's metrical structure, foot and syllable structure and its segmental makeup. The intruder supplies only one subsyllabic element. The errors in 1 provide details. Constituent Error pity shame onset - "sh" shitty husky hefty nucleus - "e" hesky snickering chuckling coda - "l" snickeling This view has a number of advantages: a it explains why blends and slips have so many characteristics in common; b it eliminates the problems inherent in the splice approach; c it explains otherwise inexplicable features of blends; d it allows one to compare targets and intruders to determine whether word frequency effects are present LAUBSTEIN ; e it allows production models to employ a single mechanism to produce both blends and slips.

Lexicography This paper presents an overview of attempts in recent years to ease the process of producing accurate, up-to-date bilingual dictionaries. Various approaches have been made in translating existing dictionaries, "bilingualising" dictionaries, developing dictionary databases, and the like. One particular approach will then be focussed on, namely the "Bridge" series of dictionaries which has identified and addressed the gap between conventional bilingual and monolingual dictionaries, and which build on existing information in the COBUILD philosophy of lexicography.

Although they use the strategies of monolingual lexicography, the fact that the definitions are in the user's native language makes them much more accessible to the language learner. To date, bilingual dictionaries have tended to provide only equivalents in the target language, with no contextual information or example sentences. It is therefore hardly surprising that many language learners, when faced with several senses and translation equivalents couched in unfamiliar terminology, pick an equivalent without really knowing whether it is accurate.

Monolingual L2 dictionaries are often off-putting for the learner because of the abbreviated language and terminology used, the lack of precision and lack of examples. The definitions in COBUILD dictionaries are full sentences and thus are more amenable to translation than the traditional abbreviated style of defining.

Several years ago, the first translation of the small Students Dictionary into Brazilian Portuguese, was published, identifying and addressing a gap in the market between conventional bilingual and monolingual dictionaries. Although it uses the strategies of monolingual lexicography, the fact that the definitions are in the user's native language makes them much more accessible.

Other parallel projects have been launched since. A major publisher in Thailand is preparing a Bridge Dictionary. Lithuanian and Czech versions are already prepared and in publication. When these translations are available for two languages, e. When ten translations are available which is a reasonable first target on present evidence , the eleventh will make it possible to compile ten new dictionaries.

There is likely to be a large range of marketable products incorporating such a multilingual lexical core. This paper will examine the way that information contained within the individual language versions can best be combined. Computational Linguistics Since last summer term we offer a web-based course in Computational Linguistics which is part of the regular curriculum. The course modules are built around the prototype of an intelligent dictionary look-up programme. Parts of the programme as well as the prototype itself are made available for exploration and a deeper insight into the architecture and functionality of the modules.

Students are encouraged to present their solutions to single tasks within the prototype. The Web seems to be particularly well suited for exploration and communication. In the first stage we used several communication tools for evaluation purposes. In my talk, I will present design issues of the course which have been drawn with the intention to make learning more attractive and hence more effective.

Sie kann verstanden werden als eine besondere Art des Referierens vgl. Diese Relationen spielen sich auf verschiedenen konzeptuellen Dimensionen ab, die wie die deiktische Relation selbst sowohl von lexikalischen als auch grammatischen Mitteln signalisiert werden. LENZ Vor allem am Beispiel der Temporaldeixis soll aufgezeigt werden, wie im Englischen lexikalische mit grammatischen Mitteln interagieren und so zum deiktischen Refererieren beitragen.

Neben Nomina und Nominalkomposita bilden im Deutschen idiomatische Bigramme, d. Kookkurenzen zweier aufeinanderfolgender Wortformen, zentrale inhaltliche Begriffe. Beispiele sind "katholische Kirche" oder "absolute Mehrheit". Als mathematisches Modell erzeugt die log-likelihood-Methode die brauchbarsten Resultate. In einem Experiment wird die Kookkurenz innerhalb von Nominalphrasen betrachtet; dabei zeigen sich Hinweise auf vielversprechende Ergebnisse. Pragmatics All languages in the world as far as we know make frequent use of idiomatic expressions.

Although many similar expressions can be found across languages, many more do not coincide exactly in their linguistic or semantic meaning and use. Thus, second language SL students should not translate these colorful expressions of the language word-for-word. They must realize that "to kick the bucket" or "to suddenly find oneself in hot water" must not be taken literally. At the same time they are often a stumble block to students of German. The goal of this presentation is to help instructors of German design better ways of approaching sociocultural idiomatic expressions in the teaching of Foreign and Second Languages.

More specifically, the focus is on the variables that govern the comprehension processes of idiomatic phrases that occur during listening, speaking, reading, writing, and viewing.

Based on research of four different studies carried out since at the University of Arizona, the session presents an interactive classroom-based methodology that analyzes the cognitive-psycholinguistic processes by which learners of SL attach meaning and come to understand idiomatic expressions. Founded on the two hypotheses - the Lexical Level Hypothesis and the Post-Lexical Level Hypothesis - the newly-developed, student-friendly methodology shows how context affects words and idiomatic-expression recognition and how idiomatic interpretation during input of sentences is taking place.

This quick-paced, hand-on session demonstrates in detailed steps how instructors of German can investigate inferences about predictable and unpredictable idiomatic expressions and the conditions under which these inferences can be observed and integrated successfully in the SL classroom. Practical in nature, participants will learn how to teach idiomatic expressions regardless of personal method using interactive multimedia and video presentations, what the effects of familiarity, literalness, and usage are, the role of context and familiarity, and lastly, how to promote in their students semantic productivity and idiom comprehension as it relates to the effects of different tasks on the comprehension and production of idioms.

The session guides participants through the general principles and procedures involved in designing, developing, and integrating idioms at the basal and more advanced levels of German instruction. Using "hard-to-crack" idiomatic expressions as a stimulus for student participation, the session addresses all necessary prerequisite information and key elements to scaffold teacher success with guided listening, speaking, reading, writing, and viewing language tasks.

The semiotic investigation presented in this paper aims at interpretation of the metaphorical usage of the mimetic signs, and it includes: 1 process of transferring the literal meaning into the metaphorical meaning of time and 2 similarity of two concepts meanings which serves as a basis of creating temporal status of a given pictogram tertium comparationis.

To emphasize the specific character of the Naxi pictography and so-called "picture of time" in it, it should be added that it is both the means of transmission and the transmission itself. The way in which a metaphor of a Naxi pictogram functions composes a separate character, a different way of discribing reality.

It means difference in transmission, i. The starting point of the analysis is an assumption that the Naxi pictography is a particular visual message, where both simple naturalistically stylized signs and combinations of signs implicate the language of transmission to be not a "verbal" but "mental" one. Research on the metaphorical expressions of time i the pictography shows basic temporal features, i. Moreover, preliminary observations and research seem to entitle us to state the existence of particular notions ontological categories in Naxi pictographic scripts, as for examp[le notion of space, motion, quantity, quality, measure.

In the present paper this author would like also to answer the questions whether the temporal metaphor in the Naxi pictography determine a change of a meaning or a change of a category? Diachronic Linguistics Als theoretischer Plan semantischer Rekonstruktion in Hinsicht auf das Wort einer altgermanischen Sprache tritt die Forschung der Besonderheiten der archaischen Semantik hervor.

In Bezug auf das sprachliche Denken wurde diese Idee schon von A. Solche Forscher wie M. Alle anderen Bestandteile des semantischen Komplexes verloren ihre Wichtigkeit im Kontext der gotischen Bibel. Einen wichtigen Hinweis bekommt man, wenn ein gotisches Lexem zwei oder mehr griechische Lexeme widergeben kann z.


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Computational Linguistics Several formalisms have been proposed to describe and represent linguistic knowledge i. The diversity of formalisms arises a crucial problem of evaluating and choosing the appropriates formalisms needed to develop an application. In this paper, we present a platform that helps to solve these problems. This platform is based on formal methods. Starting from a unified or pivot representation of the main linguistic formalisms, we develop an integration process of a varied knowledge described initially by different formalisms.

This process is very useful to the development of lingware that deal with different aspects of language i. Moreover, it guides the choosing process of the appropriate formalism, from the candidates ones, to develop a lingware, using a formal evaluation. We begin by reminding the interests of using formal methods in lingware engineering. After that, we discuss the unified or pivot representation of linguistic formalisms. Thereafter, we present some formal criteria to the choice of the appropriate s formalism s to use in a lingware and we give some details of their use.

Then, we present our approach to integrate a variety of linguistic knowledge, described initially by different formalisms. Finally, we detail the basis components of the platform that we propose. Applied Linguistics The specifics of the work stem from the specific audience that is addressed in the intensive German and English language courses in the Naval Academy. These are adults, well educated, with broad general knowledge and extensive life experience, demanding to themselves and their instructors. Most of them need translation and interpretation in their professional duties, which creates an additional motivation.

The requirements of STANAG for the development of the four basic language skills: reading, listening, writing and speaking in the intensive courses for officers do not presuppose exercises connected with translation. However, our teaching experience so far shows that this can only lead to limitation of vocabulary, learning of expressions and grammatical constructions by heart and mechanical solving of multiple choice tests on the basis of elimination. All of the above tends to create a psychological barrier in the students, a feeling of uncertainty and insecurity whenever they have to apply their language skills spontaneously and creatively.

This paper explores some of the exercises connected with translation and interpretation, their contribution to the conscious and unimpeded usage of various grammatical and lexical forms and their positive influence on the creative language acquisition. The authors lay no claim to encompassing all types of exercises, but rather concentrate on those that have proved to be successful in their practice. La grammaire universelle de R. Computational Linguistics We present a model which deals with categorization of situations and actions and generation of corresponding natural language utterances.

An acting, situated robotic agent describes manipulations of its environment from its own perspective. We follow a two-step approach cf. Thus, a coupling of non-linguistic sensor data and pre-linguistic concepeptual structure is achieved. In the second step, the activated concepts are fed into a parallel, incremental surface generator. The resulting utterances are termed situation and action descriptions SADs , cf. They are based solely on sensor input; no deliberate or discourse information like plans, discourse model or complex memory contents is integrated.

The scientific contribution of our work thus lies in 1 the presentation of an ontology in which the connection of conceptual and nonlinguistic information can be described and 2 the observation that a certain type of utterances, namely SADs, can be identified which is solely based on data extracted from the actual physical environment of a cognitive system. The model has been implemented. It currently serves as a categorization and natural language generation component of a simulated assembly robot controlled by a behavior based architecture see MILDE et.

Experiments show that every action of the robot is classified in a satisfying degree of granularity without regard to any plan the robot internally might follow. Semantics It is well-known that the English self-pronoun myself , themselves , etc. Most commonly a locally bound reflexive e. Mary likes herself , it can also, for example, be "logophoric" e.

Mary knows that John as well as herself may be indicted. Furthermore, these latter non-reflexive functions are in most dialects restricted to syntactic environments in which the predicate selecting the self-pronoun lacks a higher argument. This insight is captured in Pollard and Sag's Principle A, which essentially states that if a self-pronoun has a less oblique coargument, i. In this paper, we pick up where Pollard and Sag leave off. We propose a novel formulation of Principle A which determines the precise constraints on virtually all of the functions of self-pronouns in English.

The architecture of this principle is such that the self-pronoun continues to be subject to a series of constraints whose applicability, like Pollard and Sag's Principle A, is dependent on the environment in which the self-pronoun is found. Namely, if a self-pronoun is locally o-free, then the next concern is whether there is a higher thematic rather than syntactic argument available.

If so, then the self-pronoun must be bound thematically; if not, then the next in a series of if-then statements is checked. We will show that these statements are crucially ordered with respect to one another, and suggest that this correlates with the frequency of each related function. This extended Principle A is able to account for a wide spectrum of data, both attested and gathered with original experiments.

Psycholinguistics The question of how people interpret spatial relations between objects involves the conception of spatial dimensions and their poles in a given situation. I will introduce a descriptive model of the cognitive conception of spatial relations between objects that is consistently based on an anthropomorphological classification. The model starts at the assumption according to which people attribute proper places as well as regions to objects.

The criteria according to which the cognitive attribution of proper places and regions is made relate to functional aspects of human action and knowledge. From the overlapping relations between proper places and regions, we may predict which objects will be conceived of as spatially related at all, and can derive the distinction of topological relations between objects, i.

A more specific characterization of the relative location of objects is accomplished by the human conception of spatial dimensions and their poles. Here, the dimensional interpretation of a situation is derived from the asymmetries of the human body. The individual that interprets his or her spatial environment occupies the spacedimensoning Origo, which is the basic precondition for cognition of dimensional relations.

Subsequently, instances other than the space-cognizing individual him- or herself can become the Origo through mental translation and rotation processes; these processes generally involve the patterns of anthropomorphous projection. What has been described in previous theoretical approaches by means of classification of seperate systems of spatial reference, can now be derived in a unified way from cognitive-psychological factors; i. I will report on empirical results that account for the suitability of this descriptive model as an explanative model of the actual use of dimensional prepositions in different situations.

Morphology Comparability of adjectives answers to a kind of adjective meaning - scalability, defined as a range, versus a point on a scale. In English, the morphological question of whether comparison in relation to a higher degree is expressed by the inflected forms in - er and - est or their periphrastic equivalents, more and most, depends on numerous variables: length of word, position of stress, form of suffix, if any, etymology, frequency, as well as presumed free variation.

The availability of two ways of expressing higher degree in the quality of an adjective raises the usage question of which form should be used with any particular adjective? BOLINGER claims that the semantic issue of degrees affects the morphological realization of adjective comparison, inhibiting the synthetic - er morpheme even under conditions that would otherwise permit it. While semantic classification of adjectives does reveal some tendencies in the morphological manifestation of adjective gradation, grammarians contend that the choice between inflectional and periphrastic comparison is largely determined by the length of the adjective QUIRK et al.

Although adjective length is cited as the main determinant of morphological variation, a major problem arises with 2-syllable adjectives, many of which permit both forms of comparison. Thus it readily becomes clear that sheer prosody and phonological structure of an adjective are not sufficient criteria to determine which form should be used with any particular adjective; the syntactic role an adjective plays also warrants consideration. While most adjectives that are inflected for comparison can also take the periphrastic forms with more and most , they assume the periphrastic form more often when they are predicative and are followed by a correlative than -clause.

Additionally, there seem to be fewer restrictions on using the periphrastic forms with adjectives in correlative clauses of proportion. This paper will examine adjective gradation and illustrate how the periphrastic form of comparison is gaining ground in current American English usage, confirming the diachronic tendency for periphrastic forms to replace morphological ones over time, supported by theories of morphological language typology and grammaticalization. Having spent the last year gathering data and documenting actual usage of comparability in adjectives, it will be shown that the tendency to employ the periphrastic form in adjective gradability is particularly widespread with mono-syllabic adjectives, indicating a 21 st century irreverence for established prescriptive grammar.

Zu diesem Zweck wurden ca. Das Computerprogramm "Sprechkarte" erlaubt es, die Antworten 1 , 2 , 3 oder 4 der Sprecher geographisch sichtbar zu machen. Theory of Linguistics Although coordinate constructions are very common in natural languages, they are among the most difficult phenomena to describe in any linguistic theory. In this paper, I shall try to develop a way of speaking about coordination as a kind of linguistic speed-up device. Since any coordinated structure is intrinsically more complex than its conjoined parts, the formation rules for coordination must have evolved later than the formation rules for non-coordinated structures.

Languages solve the technical problem of coordination by simply repeating formation rules. Thus, coordination as such is the recursive technique of applying sentence formation rules more than once. Conjunctors mark the beginning of a secondary procedure for sentence formation. However, obeying some constraints, a secondary procedure does not have to activate all formation rules actived in a previous procedure. This allows for treating gapping and left-deletion together with other structurally less demanding forms of coordination.

The difference between easy and difficult forms of coordination is mainly how general the repeated formation rules are. The procedural approach also claims that representation of coordination procedures are impossible to achieve if no further allowances for certain types of groupings are made. I shall try to show that even complicated coordinated structures can be readily represented if the usual two-dimensional plane for stemmata or dependency trees is expanded into a third dimension.

Wir unterscheiden daher drei Bereiche im Lexikon im Unterschied zu, z. Funktion , die Restriktionen auf das lexikalische und syntaktische Umfeld des Diskursmarkers, und die stilistischen Eigenarten. ROTH Dabei erhebt sich die Frage nach jenen Veranlagungen und anerzogenen resp. Psycholinguistics Since experimentally induced speech errors are often triggered by certain carefully selected tongue twisters, we may rather easily predict what kind of segmental errors subjects will produce in laboratory settings.

Nevertheless, there is a handful of factors that have been found to constrain phonological slips of the tongue in naturalistic speech as well. The following constraints have been proposed so far:. The present paper discusses the effect of the constraints above in naturalistic phonological errors in the Finnish language. It is found that the constraints form a hierarchy in which phonotactics and structural properties play the most important role. The calculations indicate that the power of initialness effect is less than chance and overruled by another structural constraint, namely position similarity.

On the basis of the present data, it is also evident that adjacency constrains phonological errors more strictly than either word class or phrase-internalness and that lexical constraint can be seen in only one fourth of the errors. The results can be interpreted to shed light on both the word-internal cohesion and architecture of the speech production system.

Although we cannot predict when an error will occur, we may expect it to be of certain type. Sociolinguistics This paper will discuss the prospect of using personal letters for the study of linguistic change and variation. This is not a new idea: a number of linguists interested in the history of the English language have been doing just that for a number of years already the Corpus of Early English Correspondence is perhaps the foremost example.

The author's interest here, however, is to point out the possibility of compiling a corpus of correspondence that is not language based, but language-community based. Choosing eighteenth-century Croatia as an exemplary time and place, the author will describe a language situation that was considerably different from that of England at the same time and even for several centuries before: non-native languages e. A corpus of multilingual correspondence would be advantageous for the historical study of language use in Croatia.

First of all, it would allow the linguist to see how one language community used different varieties including different languages to communicate among themselves - and how these patterns of language use changed with time. Secondly, it could shed light on the mechanisms of linguistic change caused by language contact. Finally, due to its content, such a corpus would be of interest to linguists and non-linguists alike e. Phonology Syllable contraction in Taiwanese Southern Min has long attracted the attention of many Chinese linguists.

In the descriptive model syllable contraction results from deletion, and how it occurs remains almost unexplained. First, the association of segments and the skeleton tier begins with both edges, affecting onset and consonantal coda alone. In addition, V-neutralization applies even when the mid vowel constitutes rime with the preceding vowel. Consider 5. Each of these particles has different discoursal meanings and functions.

The privious studies have shown that modal particles are usually unaccented. Thus, accentuation is said to be very important for the functions of particles when they are spoken. On the other hand, prosody such as intonation and accent, itself plays an important role in human speech communication. The speaker can express subtle meanings, intentions, and emotions by means of prosody, while her interlocuter can understand them almost exactly by hearing it. The problem arises when prosody is used in sentences with modal particles, as is always the case in spoken German.

It is suggested the focusing strategy of speakers using modal particles is influenced by the complexity of mutual belief. Finally, these prosodic characteristics of German modal particles concluded by the analysis are compared with those of Japanese modal particles. Psycholinguistics The on-line processing demands of morphological parsers whether human or silicon of morphology include, but are not exhausted by two requirements: morphology has to uncover the lexical identity of the stem for eventual lexical lookup. Moreover it must reveal the morphosyntactic categories for interface with syntax.

Verbs are more problematic still, as a nondefective verb has to forms per lexical entry. Note also that inflectional morphs occur frequently in texts as the ratio of running non-zero inflectional morphs to running words in Finnish is 0. The present series of simple lexical decision and lexical decision with priming will further elaborate on the stem allomorph model of Finnish NIEMI et al. Sociolinguistics At the time of Independence in , Senegal along with most other former French colonies in Africa declared French the sole official language.

Almost fourty years later, French is still the language of administration and government, the exclusive medium of public education, and the language of the urban elite. French is spoken as a first language by less than a quarter of one per cent of school-age children. This paper will attempt to describe the well-defined contexts in which French is used in Senegalese society, the contrasting socioeconomic statuses of those who claim to use French and those who do not, and the images of the French language carried in each group.

The paper will demonstrate the correlation in Senegal between socioeconomic status and knowledge of French; the correlation between the perceptions of French and its official status as the de facto only means of economic advancement; the contradiction between the official language policy and the social reality of the country; and the impact of such a policy on development goals. Phonetics Many studies have indicated that speech slows down immediately before a pause, but very little is known about the influence of a pause on the temporal organization of the utterance as a whole. The present study, using Japanese speech material, examines if the effect of an intra-sentence pause is localized to the segments immediately preceding the pause, or if it affects other parts of the utterance as well.

A Japanese test sentence, with a possible pause location at a major syntactic boundary roughly in the middle of the sentence, was produced by a number of native speakers under two contrasting conditions, i. Based on acoustic measurements, the effects of intra-sentence pause insertion was examined by analyzing the articulation rate obtained for each of the eight demi-phrases that constituted the test sentence.

The results showed that the most conspicuous change in the articulation rate due to pause insertion occurred in the demi-phrase immediately preceding the intra-sentence pause. The results also showed that the insertion of an intra-sentence pause had an additional effect of shifting the overall articulation rate of the rest of the utterance. The shift was found to be realized either as increase or decrease depending on the speaker. Thus, the effect of an intra-sentence pause was found to manifest itself not only as the decrease in the articulation rate of the segment immediately preceding the pause but also as the shift in the overall articulation rate of the rest of the utterance.

Semantics The paper deals with two main issues, namely it considers the status of blends vs. As far as the first problem is concerned blends are viewed against the concepts of cognitrive metaphor, metonymy and personification. The basic question is whether with the advent of blends there is still place for the other three above concepts in cognitive semantic theory. The result of the inquiry shows that personification can be exhaustively accounted for by blends theory, whereas metonymy cannot be analysed adequately in terms of blends. Some metaphors can be viewed as blends but some should retain their present status.

When cognitive metaphors are viewed not only as nominal, gerundial and prepositional correspondences but also as correspondences of verbs or other predicates with their arguments there seem to be at least two consequences of this stance. Firstly, predicate argument structures can be compared in the source and target domains with respect to invariance hypothesis which deals with preservation of topological structures from source to target domains. Secondly, it brings the theory of cognitive metaphor closer to other linguistic theories such as classical semantics and even generative grammar.

Sociolinguistics In recent years much progress has been made concerning certain aspects e. From a syntactic point of view, these and several other studies have shown that languages or grammars in contact interact at all levels of linguistic structures e. This interaction is not random, but it is rule-governed. For instance, is codeswitching structure determined by the grammar of one of the participating languages in a given speech situation; or is it the case that it is determined evenly by all the participating languages?

This paper examines these issues in the light of CS data involving English with selected African languages and against the backdrop of the diglossic relationship that exists between English and these languages. In this relationship English is the High language and African languages are the Low languages. Accordingly, in their linguistic behavior African bilingual speakers tend to draw linguistic items from English when speaking an African language.

It is argued that structurally the resulting codeswitching speech is almost exclusively governed by the syntactic rules of the matrix language, in this case the participating African language. Evidence for this argument is provided and include features such as word order within an NP, verbal inflections, subject pronoun copying, and double plural marking. The implications of this argument for the search for universal constraints in codeswitching are examined.

Die Stellungnahmen zu diesem Thema sind unterschiedlich. Ziel dieser Studie ist festzustellen, ob der Halbvokal [j] ein im Lexikon der Sprache distinktives Segment ist oder nicht. Syntax It is a familiar observation that in multiple wh constructions where movement could potentially affect a number of wh -phrases, it is the structurally superior wh -phrase that must be chosen for movement. The familiar minimal pair in 1 illustrates this "Superiority Effect". Who saw what?

The general phenomenon of an operation being required to affect the structurally highest member in its set of potential operands is also observed in German Sentence Negation henceforth GSN. In German sentences containing indefinite noun phrases, prefixing one of the indefinites with the morpheme k - as shown in 3 marks sentence negation. When multiple indefinites are present, it is the structurally superior one that must be k -marked. Sentences that violate this pattern simply do not express neutral sentence negation 2c.

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Eine Frau sah einen Mann. A woman saw a man. K eine Frau sah einen Mann. Neg-a woman saw a man. Eine Frau sah k einen Mann. A woman saw Neg-a man.! That is, I argue that both constructions involve movement and that the sentence negation structure for 2c is ruled on the same grounds as 1b. Further I show the compatibility of my proposal with GSN involving definite noun phrases.

I also demonstrate that apparent counterexamples to the generalization above can be attributed to the presence of a tripartite structure induced by focus or a generic operator. My proposal, if correct, has important consequences for the analysis of negation, and also suggests that superiority is a general phenomenon, extending beyond wh -movement.


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HORNSTEIN presents a Minimalist reinterpretation of this phenomenon, suggesting that a locally bound reflexive is a trace, created by A-movement of the antecedent, in a Case position reflexivization henceforth. Although it derives the long-noted distributional similarity of A-traces and reflexives, and is thus quite attractive, Hornstein's suggestion is not tenable.

This study presents a re-examination of binding phenomena within the Minimalist framework, and concludes that anaphors undergo A-movement, thus becoming A-traces, in LF; hence, their distributional similarity follows. Instead, this study adopts Lasnik's forthcoming suggestion that A-movement does not leave a trace. Without A-traces, reflexivization does not hold, favoring a more traditional treatment of reflexives viz. Language and politics have rarely been more fatefully intertwined than at present. All of these developments place insistent new demands on linguists to rededicate themselves to public linguistics in the next century.

Lexicography In der modernen Phraseologieforschung treten semantische Aspekte und die phraseologischen Komponenten immer mehr in den Vordergrund. Dementsprechend werden onomasiologische bzw. Die Studie diskutiert bzw. Bei der praktischen lexikographischen Untersuchung kommen z. Zur Illustration dieser Formen des Sprachkontakts und ihrer Auswirkungen auf die Herausbildung einer Norm, konzentriere ich mich auf Beispiele aus dem Bereich der Aussprache. Mein Vortrag ist in vier Teile gegliedert: 1 Was sagt der Markt? Wer Vorschriften, Anweisungen, Anleitungen befolgen soll, der will eindeutig erfahren: was soll ich - der Leser - wann, wo und wie machen?

Verleitet ein Text zum Weiterlesen, dann ist es dem Verfasser gelungen, interessant zu schreiben. Wie kann man technische Dokumentation interessant schreiben? Psycholinguistics Conceptualizations of productivity and creativity as one versus two basic processes underlying novel verbal output lie at the heart of restrictive cognitive versus functional semantic theories of linguistics. I argue for a semantic, non-syntactic, explanation of the data. Indeed, syntactically similar items behave differently i.

Moreover, we observe very strong similarities across languages. Other pairs of divergent quasi-synomyms i. The possibility of subcategorizing a NP object proves only to be a sufficient condition for NCA but not a necessary one i. Likewise, the form "le", "en", "y" of the pronominalisation of the missing infinitival VP complement is not in itself a reliable criteria, but basically locative matrix verbs requiring a "y" VP proform i.

Other semantically orientated parameteers intentionality and aspect are currently investigated. However, I confess that my still tentative preliminary results do not yet provide a single explanation if any of the lexical phenomenon at hand. Computational Linguistics Augmentative und alternative Kommunikation ist das Forschungsgebiet, auf dem Methoden und Systeme entwickelt werden, die z.

Morphology Phonetic criteria are the basis of the division of Modern Chinese languages into Mandarin and Southern Chinese. According to these principles Wu languages Lower Yangzi belong to the socond group. In word-formation Modern Chinese languages are using either prepositional or postpositional models.

This may be shown in male and female animal names. Word-formative isoglosses divide Chinese Languages into Northern postpositional Mandarin and Wu and Southern prepositional. Thus Wu languages appear to be rather transistional between North and South than purely Southern ones. Dies wird besonders deutlich an einem bislang kaum beachteten Teilgebiet der Reform, der Variantenschreibung. Bekanntlich wird unterschieden zwischen gleichberechtigten Varianten z. Pragmatisch sind Argumentationen deshalb komplexe Sprechhandlungen, die sich von anderen Sprechhandlungen wie z.

Verben des Meinens evozieren z. Texte und Textsorten lassen sich u. Computational Linguistics In this paper we present an approach, conceptual cartography, which accelerates and facilitates substantially accessing the contents of textual documents. Conceptual cartography consists of graphical mapping of concepts in a document using a list of complex terms classed in order of importance and arranged according to two semantical relationships: proximity , which includes different sense relationships such as hyponymy between concepts, and association , which uses the combinational properties of concepts to retrieve terms in semantical association.

Each one of these relationships creates a network of concepts that can be expanded and explored. For example, after extracting the complex terms of a text BECKTON by Termplus , a multilingual and modular complex-term extraction unit developed at CIRAL, Laval University a network of relationships may be generated for each of the terms extracted, as we have done here with Canadian law :. These networks are generated at great speeds providing an efficient environment for accessing the contents of documents.

A user can get a bird's eye view of the contents of a document by simply browsing through the list of terms extracted by Termplus , or create and navigate through the semantical networks to obtain very precise information from a document for divers applications such as construction of thesauri and lexicological databases, alignment of complex terms, information retrieval, document classification, etc.

From a text input the system gives back rich syntactic structures containing lexical, phrasal, grammatical, and thematic information. The IPS system focuses on a robustness, b genericity, and c deep linguistic analyses. Robustness is required for efficient and reliable NLP tools. Thus, when a complete analysis fails, partial structures are still exploitable for NLP applications.

In speech synthesis, for instance, the need for disambiguation in some French liaison contexts requires more than a surface analysis of the sentence. In addition, the use of such detailed analyses is essential to get satisfactory translation results as well as effective linguistic tools for language tutoring. Z fz fa, fb etc being grammatical function labels like subject and object. In their imp lementation in logic programming using PATR formalism with due modifications. In this paper, we discuss the treatment of variation of subcategorization properties of words as in: 7a They give John a book.

Different usage patterns are accounted for derived subcategorization frames. Anstelle des alveodentalen bulgarischen l-Lautes wird in bestimmten Positionen vor allem von jungen Sprechern ein bilabialer Laut artikuliert. Im vorliegenden Beitrag stellt man sich an erster Stelle die Aufgabe, die Positionen festzustellen, in denen der alveodentale bulgarische l-Laut durch einen bilabialen Laut ersetzt wird. Vor einem Vorderzungenvokal artikuliert der Bulgare immer ein alveodentales l. Wenn ja, in welchen Regionen kommt sie vor? This paper will argue that a single mechanism in a speech production model should be used to generate sublexical slips and the superficially quite distinct type of error known as word blends.

This paper argues that word blends are better seen as sublexical substitutions. Es ist aber mit Freude hervorzuheben, dass die Praxis in jedem Kapitel des Buches die Oberhand gewinnt. Budapest: OLKA, Thema- tischer Teil: Mehrsprachigkeitsdidaktik. Klippel hebt andererseits hervor, dass — auch wenn Englisch vielleicht nicht aus spracherwerbstheoretischer Sicht die beste erste Fremdsprache ist —, der Faktor Motivation wichtig ist.

Abge- schlossen wird der Schwerpunkt mit einer Auswahlbibliographie zur Mehrspra- chigkeitsdidaktik und germanischen Interkomprehension, zusammengestellt von Jana Behrend. Vier weitere Artikel der Zeitschrift befassen sich mit anderen Themen. Kluges Der Luftangriff auf Halberstadt am 8.

April bzw. Bemerkenswert ist die hohe Bedeutung, die Sprache hier einnimmt. Der Aufsatz von L. Ikuta 43— So verweist auch M. Auch ergibt sich im Werk von Kraus eine Voraus- schau auf einen Weltuntergang durch einen kommenden Krieg. Ikuta eingeht. Der letzte Beitrag stammt von E. Menschenrecht- sethos und deutschsprachiger Gegenwartsroman Es folgt noch eine Aus- wahlbibliographie von 50 Titeln zum Kriegsthema in der Nachkriegsliteratur seit Berlin: Cornelsen, Verben 1 , 2.

Pronomen, Nomen und Artikel, 4. Verben 2 , 5. Adjektive, 7. Der Inhalt der einzelnen Einheiten wird sowohl im Inhaltsverzeichnis als auch in der Kopfzeile jeder Doppelseite durch ein Beispiel sowie den grammatischen Begriff angegeben z. Einheit 7 Ich kaufe im Supermarkt ein — Trennbare Verben. Wie alt bist du? Abwechslung wird aber dadurch erzielt, dass auf jeder Seite verschiedene Aufgabentypen mit unter- schiedlichem Schwierigkeitsgrad zu finden sind. Sind beispielsweise Artikel im richtigen Kasus einzusetzen, steht am Rand konsequent eine Liste der betreffenden Nomen mit Definitartikel.

Im Kino. Stuttgart: Metzler, Das Buch ist in 5 Kapitel plus Anhang unterteilt. Kapitel 1 1—36 widmet sich den Perspektiven der Entwicklungspsychologie. Trotz dieses Kapitels sei darauf hingewiesen, dass es sich bei diesem Buch nicht um ein auf die Grund- schule ausgerichtetes Werk handelt. Stil und Aufbau Umgang mit Definitionen, Hervorhebungen, usw. Die Grundfarbe des Buches orange — auch am oberen Buchrand und in den Seitenzahlen wiederzufinden wirkt auflockernd und modern. Insgesamt wirkt das Buch durch die zahlreichen Struktur- und Lesehilfen wie eine bereits vorgefertigte Lernhilfe zum Thema — was im positiven Sinn zu sehen ist.

Das Buch erleichtert dem Leser vieles. Mein Urteil: wertvoll. Berlin: de Gruyter, Germanistische Linguistik Selten und ohne Querverweise gibt es Parallelen in der Terminologie z. Kritisiert wird dabei vor allem die Sicht von Grammatik als einem geschlossenen System Hennig, ff. Sprachwandel Edler und Szcze- paniak. Aber sollten dann nicht die Textproben als Untersuchungsgegenstand und -ziel im Mittelpunkt stehen!?

Benns Gedicht bzw. Der folgende Beitrag ist von verschiedenen Kollegen der English Academy verfasst. Zudem sollte die erstge- lernte Fremdsprache, in der Regel Englisch, der Vorbereitung weiterer Spracher- werbsprozesse dienen. Kast, Bernd; Neuner, Gerhard Hrsg. Berlin: Langenscheidt, Kontexte, Produktion, Unterricht. Bad Heilbrunn: Klinkhardt, , — Neuner, Gerhard u. Wolfgang G. Aus dem Themenblock Lyrikvermittlung ragt Andreas F. Bielefeld: Aisthesis, Vorrangig wurden bislang die Werke von Autoren, die nach Deutschland auswanderten und auf Deutsch schrieben, zur Kenntnis genommen, so erlangte beispielsweise Mirok Li einen gewissen Be- kanntheitsgrad.

Dieses Buch stellt zahlreiche weitere lesenswerte koreanische Schriftsteller vor und beleuchtet die Vielfalt von Gattungen, Themen und Stilen, welche die koreanische Literatur des Jahrhunderts hervorgebracht hat. Die Autoren gliedern das Jahrhundert in vier Epochen, die in mehreren Unterkapiteln detaillierter dargestellt werden: I. Literatur Lee, Namho u. Norwalk, Conn. Warum wieder so weit ausholend? Sie zielt darauf, den Prozess der Wahrnehmung bei interkulturellen Begegnungen zu reflektieren. Aber Titel und Untertitel lassen einen innovativen Schwer- punkt in literarischer Textarbeit erwarten, und der ist gerade wegen dieser Konzentration auf das Zusammenfassen von Inhalten nicht realisiert.

Deutsch als Zweitsprache, Mehrsprachigkeit und Migration 2. Im Mittelpunkt der empirischen Untersuchung standen Grundschulkinder aus dritten und vierten Klassenstufen an zwei Berliner Grund- schulen. Die Gliederung umfasst zehn Kapitel, die die zwei Hauptteile der Arbeit bilden, gefolgt von einem Literaturverzeichnis, Anhang — , Register der Personen und Institutionen — und Sachregister — Zuerst werden Modelle des Sprachaneignungsprozesses in Bezug auf den zentra- len Faktor Unterricht vorgestellt, gefolgt von der Darstellung externer bzw.

Kapitel geht es um die organisatorische und methodische Anlage der Untersuchung. Das 8. Das Hervorzuheben ist die Angemessenheit des methodischen Vorge- hens bei der empirisch-qualitativen Untersuchung, zumal Faktoren beispiels- weise sozialer, linguistischer, kognitiver und personaler Art, welche eine Wirkung auf den Zweitspracherwerb bzw. Es sollte auch Sprachwissenschaftlern und Methodikern empfohlen werden. Welche Ausbildungsberufe stehen heute auf der Top-Ten-Liste? Wie wird in Deutschland mit rechtsradikalen Gruppen umgegangen? War Christa Wolf eine inoffizielle Informantin der Stasi?

Sechs unterschiedlich umfangreiche Kapitel enthalten informative Lesetexte, authentische Texte u. Am Ende gibt es noch Linkempfehlungen, auch auf die jeweiligen Kapitel bezogen. Die Texte sind interessant, anspruchsvoll, authentisch und keinesfalls trocken. Studies in Languages and Communication Die Autoren des vorliegenden Sammelbandes konzentrieren sich in ihrer Evaluie- rung von unterschiedlichen bilingualen Unterrichtskontexten auf solche, die in tra- ditionell einsprachigen Regionen zum Einsatz kommen1, z.

Dabei untersuchen sie die Auswirkung von bilingualem Unterricht in drei Bereichen: spanische Sprache und Literatur, Sozial- und Naturwissenschaften und Englisch als Fremdsprache. Die Hauptstudie wid- met sich dabei der Region Andalusien und vergleicht verschiedene bilinguale Schulkontexte, in denen die L2 hier Englisch im CLIL-Sachfachunterricht verwen- det wird, mit monolingualen Unterrichtsszenarien, in denen die Fremdsprache Englisch nur im formalen Sprachunterricht zum Einsatz kommt.

Kapitel 4 beschreibt die untersuchten Schulkontexte und den Testaufbau. Die folgenden vier Kapitel kon- zentrieren sich auf den Einfluss von bilingualem CLIL- Unterricht auf die Entwick- lung der Erstsprache Spanisch besonders des akademischen Sprachregisters und auf den L2-Spracherwerb im Vergleich zu monolingualen Unterrichtsformen, in de- nen die L2 Englisch nur im formalen Sprachunterricht eingesetzt wird.

In Teil 3 des Sammelbandes werden Fallstudien in unterschiedlichen regionalen Kontexten vorgestellt. Im spanischen Kontext sind hier besonders die autonomen Gemeinschaf- ten Baskenland, Katalonien und Galicien zu nennen. Ebenso ist die Frage, was dagegen zu tun sei, unbeantwortet. Dies tun die acht Artikel in dem von U. Mehlem und S. Sahel herausgegebenen Band zum Erwerb schriftsprachlicher Kompetenzen im DaZ-Kontext, von denen sich je drei mit dem Elementarbereich bzw.

Den Anfang macht A. Fischer, die sich der besonderen Situation des Zweitspra- chenerwerbs in der deutschsprachigen Schweiz widmet. Die Antwort darauf ist nicht eindeutig. Kaltenbacher, H. Klages und T. Vasylyeva davon aus, dass Kinder beim Zweitsprachenerwerb bereits im Kindergarten auf die sprachlichen Anforderungen der Schule vorberei- tet werden sollten. Es wird deutlich, wie schwierig der Erwerb der Genus- und Flexions- formen, aber auch der Satzklammer ist.

Die beiden Artikel von V. Blaschitz und W.

Why English? : Confronting the Hydra .Pauline Bunce

In Verbindung mit anderen erhobenen Daten z. Mehlem in seinem Beitrag. Der Schriftspracherwerb wird dabei als kom- plexer kognitiver Prozess verstanden, der in sozialen Kontexten stattfindet. Sahel geht der Frage nach, wie sich der Gebrauch der Nominalphrasenflexion bei Erst- und Zweitsprachenlernenden entwickelt.

Die Flexion ist gekennzeich- net zum einen durch die starken und schwachen Formen, durch das Genus sowie die Kongruenz, zum anderen durch die Stellung im Satz. Dies machen die Artikel deut- lich. Auf Seite ist die zweite Abbildung nicht die im Untertitel beschriebene.

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Schrif-terwerb, Die grundlegende Frage, welche Charakteristika eine gute Forschung hat, wird auch beantwortet Kap. Mit der Kombinatorik Auswahl und Anordnung von Daten und mit der Wahrscheinlichkeit also ob, wie bzw. Kreuzproduktsumme, Kovarianz, Korrelation und Regression. Kapitel 12 gibt Anleitungen, bei welchen Fragestellungen bzw.

Das Buch ist sowohl als Kursbuch als auch im Selbststudium einsetzbar. Der didaktisch gut aufgebaute Band ist jedem zu empfehlen, der statistische Methoden in der linguistischen Forschung verstehen bzw. Die zahlreichen, aus dem Forschungsalltag genommenen Beispiele erleichtern das Verstehen der beschriebenen Verfahren. Spra- che — Philologie — Berufsbezug. Letztere zeigen sich in der erstarkten Nachfrage nach einer praxis- bezogenen Germanistik.

Die Frage, die Roggausch sich und uns stellt, ist aber nicht nur, weshalb Studienreformen seit einigen Jahren derart massiv auftreten, sondern auch — das ist vielleicht sogar der interessantere Punkt —, ob Muster und vergleichbare Ziele in dieser weltweiten Erscheinung erkennbar werden. Allerdings muss, ungeachtet des Titels, zu Beginn darauf hingewiesen werden, dass trotz unterschiedlicher Defini- tionen von Mehrsprachigkeit z. Bilingualismus Untersu- chungsgegenstand ist. Kapitel 3 definiert verschiedene Typen von Bilingualismus und stellt in chronolo- gischer Reihenfolge zentrale Forschungsergebnisse vor.

Im Teilkapitel 3. Kapitel 4 versucht nun eine Abgrenzung von balanciert und unbalanciert Zwei- sprachigen zu treffen, wobei sich kritisch mit dem Begriff Sprachdominanz auseinandergesetzt wird. Kursbuch mit Audio- CD. Der sehr strukturierte und klare Aufbau des Lehrwerks besticht. Ein Schwerpunkt liegt dabei auf der beruflichen Kommunika- tion.

Auch das ansprechende Layout mit farbigen Fotos und ausreichend! Die Sprachverarbeitung wird als ein — funktional gesehen — Zusammenspiel unter- schiedlicher Teilsysteme sowie auch funktional verschiedener Ebenen der Verarbei- tung beschrieben. Hier sind die Beschaffenheit und die pro- totypischen Charakteristika der fiktionalen Texte gemeint. Den Ausgangspunkt bilden hier Einsichten der Sprach- und Kommunikationswissen- schaft; kommunikative Handlungen sind dabei komplexe Ganzheiten, welche mit den Kategorien der ineinandergreifenden Ebenen der Phonologie, der Morpholo- gie, der Wortbildung, der Semantik lexikalen und Aussagensemantik , der Syntax, der Textlinguistik und der Pragmatik beschreibbare Eigenschaften besit- zen.

Ande- rerseits aber will er deutlich machen, inwiefern andere Sprachkreise oder Kultu- ren die Aufgabe bekommen, neuen Begriffsbestimmungen der Soziologie Rech- nung zu tragen. Der Autor versteht seinen Aufsatz als bescheidenen Vorschlag zugunsten einer sehr offenen Translatologie. Der Beitrag orientiert sich an einem linguistisch fundierten Modell der Textarbeit mit der Dreiteilung in Prozesse, Produkte und Management. Dieses Thema kann aber auch z. Im Mittelpunkt der Analyse stehen dabei die Einleitungstexte studentischer Seminararbeiten. Des Weiteren muss auf engem Raum neues Wissen mit altem Wissen verbunden werden, was den Verfasser vor hohe Anforderungen stellt s.

Thiel- mann Wie schwierig das Anfertigen eines gelungenen Einleitungstextes ist, stellt Prestin in ihren exemplarischen Analysen dar. Der Begriff des Wissens ist bei der Autorin zentral, da der Zweck der Seminarar- beit im Wissenstransfer und in der Wissensverarbeitung liegt. Bei der Auswertung stellt die Autorin dann sechs verschiedene Einstiegsverfahren fest. Neben einer in- haltlichen und formalen Betrachtung werden auch syntaktische Aspekte behandelt.

In einer anderen wird auf die Grundkonstellation der Arbeit Bezug genommen, indem die durch das Titelblatt bekannten Informationen wieder abgerufen werden. In Kapitel zwei legt die Autorin die theoretischen Grundlagen dar. Kapitel 3 widmet sich der Korpusbeschrei- bung. Schreiberfahrung der Probanden nicht abfragen. Zudem findet sich in diesem Kapitel auch die Beschreibung des Vergleichskorpus wissenschaftlicher Artikel. Fazit: Es handelt sich hier um eine sehr interessante und profunde Studie.

Das Buch versteht sich m. Literatur Ahmad, Ummul K. Berlin: de Gruyter, , — Swales, John, M. English in Academic and Research Settings. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, Thielmann, Winfried: Deutsche und englische Wissenschaftssprache im Vergleich. Heidelberg: Synchron, Funk Gleichzeitig muss die Lehrkraft in der Lage sein, sich selbst und die eigene Rolle in diesem System kritisch zu reflektieren, um eine Weiterentwicklung des Unterrichts zu erreichen. Der Reflexionskreislauf besteht dabei aus folgenden Schritten: 1.

Da dieser aus dem kommunikativen Ansatz entstanden ist vgl. Diesen Kriterien liegen Erkenntnisse aus der Spracherwerbsforschung zugrunde, die belegen, dass erfolgreiches Fremdsprachenlernen nicht nur von ausreichen- dem Sprachangebot Input , sondern auch Sprachgebrauch Output bestimmt ist. Diesen Standards wurden wiederum Beispiele aus den Interviews zugeordnet, die dann in Niveaustufen beruflicher Handlungskompe- tenz zusammengefasst werden konnten. Bad Heilbrunn: Klinkhardt, Berlin: Waxmann, Ein internati- onales Handbuch.

Auch hier haben wir es, wie in dem Beitrag von Quetz, mit der Schwierigkeit der Skalierung und Evaluierung zu tun. Spannend zu lesen ist der Beitrag von Jung zu einem investigativen Wortschatzunterricht. Der Sammelband gibt m. Anmerkung 1 In den 90er Jahren erschien die Neuauflage Sichtwechsel neu. Literatur Bachmann, Saskia u. Mittelstufe Deutsch als Fremdsprache.

Stuttgart: Ernst Klett, — Mannheim: Dudenverlag, Denn wir speichern Wissen, indem wir Informationen vernetzen, also Assozia- tionen bilden. Die drei Kapitel sind einheitlich strukturiert: Die sprachlichen Erscheinungen werden typologisch jeweils in ihrer historischen Entwicklung, regionalen Verbreitung und funktionalen Variation vorgestellt. Lenz Drifts vgl. Ein Literaturverzeichnis, ein Glossar der wichtigsten linguistischen Fachbegriffe sowie ein umfangreiches Sachregister runden das anspruchsvolle Lehrwerk ab.

Hervorzuheben sind ferner die vielen Querverweise, die dem Leser eine gute Navigationshilfe sind. Mit dem gleichen Ziel kann es aber auch bereits Unterrichtenden eine unentbehrliche Hilfe sein. Die Hauptarbeitsgebiete der vor kurzem verstorbenen Verfasserin Auf die wissenschaftlichen Interessen der Autorin wirkte sich ohne Zweifel ihre wechselvolle Lebensbiographie aus. Ihr Forschungsinteresse galt damals vor allem der Literatur. Sie weisen auf literarische Fragen hin z. Was ist ein Frauenroman? Pragmatische Dimension und sprachliche Wirkungen , auf die Werbesprache z.

Entwicklungstendenzen der Werbesprache seit der Mitte des Jahrhunderts , auf die Sprachgeschichte z. Grammatiken, fast lustig zu lesen. Einmal doch […]. Er liest ein Buch. Die Mutter liest Erbsen. Ich erlaube mir diese Formulierung mit Verweis auf Seite des hier zur Rezension anstehenden Werkes. Kopfzeilen, ebenfalls rosarot hervorgehoben, zeigen an, in welchem der 15 Kapitel man gerade unterwegs ist. Es hilft, das Terrain noch weiter zu erkunden. Und dann ist da noch ein zweispaltiger Sachindex. Zugleich werden hier jedoch auch die Lakunen offenbar.

Der Autor redet Klartext. Es gilt, Belesenheit, Umsicht und Weitsicht zu attestieren. Er ist auf die Zukunft gerichtet. Man muss es allerdings von seiner verdinglichten Form, dem Video, unterscheiden. Mit anderen Worten: Wir tun gut daran, uns mit alten und neuen Medien zu befassen. Der Omnimedia- einsatz funktioniert also in beide Richtungen. An welcher Stelle taucht ein Terminus erstmals auf? Dem Autor ist es auf vorbildliche Weise gelungen, forschungsmethodologische, testthe- oretische, psycholinguistische und erwerbstheoretische Fragestellungen in einem konzis beschriebenen Forschungsdesign zu vereinen und weitgehend zu beant- worten.

Letzteres ist durch die gleichzeitige Erfassung von quantitativen psychometri- schen und qualitativen hier: introspektiven Daten und der Verwendung unter- schiedlicher Erhebungsmethoden gekennzeichnet. Das liegt daran, dass hier an zahlreichen Transkriptausschnitten jeweils exemplarisch die in den introspektiven Daten beob- achteten mentalen Prozesse vorgestellt und diskutiert werden.

Das Schlusskapitel Kap. Jahrestagung Deutsch als Fremdsprache vom 3. Inhalt, II. Form, III. Das kann auch gar nicht anders sein: Linguistisches Arbeiten ist eben in erster Linie wissenschaftliches Arbeiten, und das folgt Konventionen und Vorgaben, die wesentlich nicht einzelwissenschaftlich definiert sind. Mehr noch: Ganz oft ist eine sehr allgemein gefasste wissenschaftliche Logik entscheidender als Normen und Regularien der spezifischen Fachrichtung. Hier droht der Zirkelschluss; hier postuliert man als Voraussetzung, was erst noch gelehrt und gelernt werden will! Auch und besonders bei diesem heiklen Punkt der Anonymisierung nicht.

Einzig der Sprachatlas ist ein der Linguistik vorbehaltenes Medium, auf das hier allerdings auch nur sehr kurz eingegangen wird. Kapitel 7. Und vielleicht zwanzigmal wird die Technik anhand von Namensalbernheiten um Entenhausen und um den Dagobert-Duck-Verlag veranschaulicht. Rezensent humorlos? Das ist alarmierend! Denn: Ohne den Gedankenaustausch mit Kolle- gInnen ist jedes Studium nichts, und sei es noch so linguistisch!

Literatur Szczepaniak, Renata: Grammatikalisierung im Deutschen. Wie studieren und sich nicht verlieren. Auflage der Neuausgabe. Berlin: Rotbuch, Contributions to Multi- lingualism in European Contexts. Studies in Language and Communication Coyle betont wiederholt, dass effektiver CLIL-Unterricht nicht ohne Auseinandersetzung mit fachspezifischen Unterrichtstheorien und Sprachmustern stattfinden kann, und weist auf den europaweit stark wachsenden Bedarf an gut ausgebildeten CLIL-Lehrenden hin.

Die Auto- rin zeigt auf, welcher Unterrichtskontext in welchen Bereichen z. Phonetik, Kor- rektheit, Syntax, etc. Anmerkungen 1 Zuletzt im Special Eurobarometer unter dem Titel Europeans and their languages. Beide sind in tabellarischer Form gestaltet, was sich als besonders lerner- und lehrerfreundlich erweist. Auf jeder Doppelseite des Kursbuches befindet sich oben rechts eine Orientierungsleiste, der die Lernziele sofort zu entnehmen sind. Zu Beginn jeder Lektion und bei fast jeder inhaltlichen Doppelseite im Kursbuch- teil werden die Lernenden dazu aufgefordert, sich mit ein paar Fotos, Bildern bzw.

Band A2, 69 , Probleme bereiten. Sie geben mannigfaltige Tipps, veranschaulichen genannte Beispiele, machen z. Die Doppelseite Alles auf einen Blick rundet jede Lektion ab. Besonders hoch zu bewerten sind m. Von Anfang an zeichnet sich DaF kompakt durch seine plurizentrische Ausrichtung aus es wird z. CD 2, Track 1—4. Durchaus interessant ist wieder das Phonetiktraining, zu dem allein schon die Titel, wie z. Kann der dritte Band noch mehr bieten? DaF kompakt B1 umfasst 12 Lektionen und greift noch interessantere Themen auf, wie z. Sehr unterhaltsam ist z. Phonetische Besonderheiten wie z.

Zwischenfazit: Ein abwechs- lungsreicher Band, der Deutschlernen zum Erlebnis macht! Sein Verdienst liegt auch darin, dass es Lerninhalte in komprimierter Form darstellt, seinen Namen also zum Programm macht. Berlin: de Gruyter, Studia Linguistica Germanica Bemerkenswert ist auch das Verzeichnis von mehr als Literaturangaben. Kapitel empirische Arbeiten zur Plurizentrik des Deutschen bzw. Kapitel fasst die Untersuchung zusammen und zeigt Perspektiven auf.

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Nachdem im 1. Die sprachliche Entwicklung in Europa im Zusammenhang von Nationalstaaten wird knapp, aber kritisch behandelt. Das letzte Unterkapitel des 3. Hier lassen sich Unterschiede zwischen bzw. Insgesamt erweist sich die Entwicklung als sehr interessant. Die Autorin zeigt hier in Bezug auf verschiedene Autoren — insbesondere S. Schmidlin stellt in Kap. Erstaunlich sind die Ergebnisse bisheriger Untersuchungen Zu- sammenfassung Seite , nach denen zum Beispiel nationale und regionale Varianten gleichgesetzt werden wie auch letztlich nur geringe Kenntnis von Helvetismen, Austriazismen und Teutonismen vorhanden ist.

Schmidlin stellt im Folgenden ff. Insgesamt haben dann Personen auf 88 Fragen geantwortet. Das 6. Ein neues Thema ist Sprachplanung. Aller- dings sind die Themen oft ineinander gebunden und nicht immer leicht auf die eigenen Fragestellungen zu beziehen, wie insgesamt das Buch nicht unbedingt einfach zu lesen ist, was einer Habilitationsschrift entspricht. Erstaunlicherweise werden auch die Untersuchungen von K.

Neben diesen Aspekten findet sich auch eine intensive sprachhistorische Behandlung des Deutschen. Dieses Spektrum umfasst neben dem Dialekt auch die Regiolekte, also die landschaftlichen Formen des gesproche- nen Hochdeutsch. Das weitere Kapitel hat zum Ziel, den Forschungsstand zu den modernen Regionalsprachen des Deutschen aufzu- arbeiten. Fragen wie z. In einem zweiten Teil, auf den ich nicht weiter eingehen werde, werden Kollokationen der technischen Wissenschaftssprache alphabetisch geordnet aufgelistet. Die Autorin regt in der Einleitung an, mit konkreten Fragen an die Formulierungshilfen heranzugehen, wie z.

United are second in the table. Abbildung die V: NOM. Das Beispiel zeigt auch, dass das Textkorpus Tageszeitungen umfasst. Quelle: archiv. Quelle: fr-aktuell. Oxford: Oxford University Press, Rundell, Michael: Macmillan collocations dictionary. Oxford: Macmillan Education, Kinderbuch Deutsch- Spanisch. Ismaning: Hueber, Edition bi:libri. Stuttgart: Klett-Langenscheidt, In Kapitel B werden u. Die Texte sind von zahlreichen Fotos und Zeichnungen begleitet. Um das globale und selektive Verstehen der Lesetexte zu entwickeln, werden u. Um die Fertigkeiten Sprechen und Schreiben zu entwickeln, werden die Lernenden aufgefordert, u.

Interkulturelles Lernen: Der moderne Fremdsprachenunterricht hat zum Ziel, auch die interkulturelle Kompetenz bei den Lernenden zu entwickeln. Fazit: Die Texte und Aufgaben entsprechen dem angegebenen Niveau B1, sind interessant und anspruchsvoll. Auflage des Buches Sprachdidaktik Deutsch von W. Steinig und H. Dieses Urteil muss ich nicht revidieren. Doch diese Erkenntnisse sind bislang nicht immer im Bewusstsein der Lehrenden angekommen. Der umfangreiche An- hang ca. Ein Glossar wichtiger didaktischer und sprachwissenschaftlicher Begriffe sowie ein Sachregister runden das Buch ab.

Der Herausgeberin ist zuzustimmen, in den vergangenen vier Jahrzehnten hat sich viel getan. Jahrhun- derts auf die Spur zu kommen. Die Suchfrage lautet: Welche Themen werden in den Artikeln immer wieder angesprochen, welche mehr oder minder ignoriert?

In jedem 4. Artikel geht es um diese Frage. Legasthenie und Zeitschriften gehen ganz leer aus. Man kann auch versuchen, die in den Lexikonartikeln vorkommenden Querver- weise zu gruppieren, um zu erfahren, wo die Brennpunkte liegen.



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